Research Aptitude Previous Year Questions and Answers [Solved] UGC NET

A hypothesis is a

(A) law
(B) canon
(C) postulate
(D) supposition


Answer: D

Suppose you want to investigate the working efficiency of nationalised
bank in India, which one of the following would you follow?

(A) Area Sampling
(B) Multi-stage Sampling
(C) Sequential Sampling
(D) Quota Sampling

Answer: B

Controlled group condition is applied in
(A) Survey Research
(B) Historical Research
(C) Experimental Research
(D) Descriptive Research

Answer: C

Which one of the following is a research tool?
(A) Graph
(B) Illustration
(C) Questionnaire
(D) Diagram

Answer: C

Research is not considered ethical if it

(A) tries to prove a particular point.
(B) does not ensure privacy and anonymity of the respondent.
(C) does not investigate the data scientifically.
(D) is not of a very high standard.

Answer: B

A research paper is a brief report of research work based on


(A) Primary Data only
(B) Secondary Data only
(C) Both Primary and Secondary Data
(D) None of the above

Answer: C

Newton gave three basic laws of motion. This research is categorized as


(A) Descriptive Research
(B) Sample Survey
(C) Fundamental Research
(D) Applied Research


Answer: C


In the process of conducting research ‘Formulation of Hypothesis” is
followed by


(A) Statement of Objectives
(B) Analysis of Data
(C) Selection of Research Tools
(D) Collection of Data

Answer: C

The essential qualities of a researcher are


(A) spirit of free enquiry
(B) reliance on observation and evidence
(C) systematization or theorizing of knowledge
(D) all the above


Answer: D

Research is conducted to


I. Generate new knowledge
II. Not to develop a theory
III. Obtain research degree
IV. Reinterpret existing knowledge


Which of the above are correct?
(A) I, III & II
(B) III, II & IV
(C) II, I & III
(D) I, III & IV

Answer: D

Which one of the following is an indication of the quality of a research
journal?


(A) Impact factor
(B) h-index
(C) g-index
(D) i10-index

Answer: A

Good ‘research ethics’ means
(A) Not disclosing the holdings of shares/stocks in a company that sponsors your
research.
(B) Assigning a particular research problem to one Ph.D./research student only.
(C) Discussing with your colleagues confidential data from a research paper that
you are reviewing for an academic journal.
(D) Submitting the same research manuscript for publishing in more than one
journal.


Answer: B

Which of the following sampling methods is based on probability?\


(A) Convenience sampling
(B) Quota sampling
(C) Judgement sampling
(D) Stratified sampling


Answer: D

Which one of the following references is written according to American
Psychological Association (APA) format?


(A) Sharma, V. (2010). Fundamentals of Computer Science. New Delhi : Tata
McGraw Hill
(B) Sharma, V. 2010. Fundamentals of Computer Science. New Delhi : Tata
McGraw Hill
(C) Sharma.V. 2010. Fundamentals of Computer Science, New Delhi : Tata McGraw
Hill
(D) Sharma, V. (2010), Fundamentals of Computer Science, New Delhi : Tata
McGraw Hill
Answer: A

Identify the incorrect statement:
(A) A hypothesis is made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for
further investigations.
(B) A hypothesis is a basis for reasoning without any assumption of its truth.
(C) Hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
(D) Scientific hypothesis is a scientific theory.
Answer: D


The research that aims at immediate application is
(A) Action Research
(B) Empirical Research
(C) Conceptual Research
(D) Fundamental Research
Answer: A

When two or more successive footnotes refer to the same work which
one of the following expressions is used?

(A) ibid
(B) et.al
(C) op.cit :
(D) loc.cit.
Answer: A

Nine year olds are taller than seven year olds. This is an example of a
reference drawn from


(A) Vertical study
(B) Cross-sectional study
(C) Time series study
(D) Experimental study

Answer: B

Conferences are meant for


(A) Multiple target groups
(B) Group discussions
(C) Show-casing new Research
(D) All the above


Answer: D

Ex Post Facto research means


(A) The research is carried out after the incident
(B) The research is carried out prior to the incident
(C) The research is carried out along with the happening of an incident.
(D) The research is carried out keeping in mind the possibilities of an incident.

Answer: A

Research ethics do not include


(A) Honesty
(B) Subjectivity
(C) Integrity
(D) Objectivity

Answer: B

Which is the main objective of research ?


(A) To review the literature
(B) To summarize what is already known
(C) To get an academic degree
(D) To discover new facts or to make fresh interpretation of known facts

Answer: D

The sequential operations in scientific research are


(A) Co-variation, Elimination of Spurious Relations, Generalisation, Theorisation
(B) Generalisation, Co-variation, Theorisation, Elimination of Spurious Relations
(C) Theorisation, Generalisation, Elimination of Spurious Relations, Co-variation
(D) Elimination of Spurious Relations, Theorisation, Generalisation, Co-variation.

Answer: A

In sampling, the lottery method is used for


(A) Interpretation
(B) Theorisation
(C) Conceptualisation
(D) Randomisation


Answer: D

Which one of the following is not a type of experimental method ?


(A) Single group experiment
(B) Residual group experiment
(C) Parallel group experiment
(D) Rational group experiment


Answer: B

Which one of the following is not a non-parametric test ?


(A) t-test
(B) Sign test
(C) Chi-square test
(D) Run test


Answer: A

Read the following statements – one labelled as Assertion (A) and the
other as Reason (R) :


Assertion (A) : Qualitative research in India has a long way to go to reach
international standards.
Reason (R) : Because the funding agencies do not support qualitative research in
academic institutions.
Find the correct answer from the codes given below :
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(D) Both (A) and (R) are false.


Answer: C

Identify the correct sequence of research steps :


(A) Selection of topic, review of literature, data collection, interpretation of
findings
(B) Review of literature, selection of topic, data collection, interpretation of
findings
(C) Selection of topic, data collection, review of literature, interpretation of
findings
(D) Selection of topic, review of literature, interpretation of findings, data
collection


Answer: A

Deconstruction is a popular method of research in


(A) Basic Science
(B) Applied Science
(C) Social Science
(D) Literature


Answer: D

With which one of the following techniques communality is associated ?


(A) Univariate analysis
(B) Factor analysis
(C) Case studies
(D) SWOT analysis


Answer: B

The variable which impacts the relationship between an independent
variable and a dependent variable is known as


(A) antecedent variable
(B) precedent variable
(C) predictor variable
(D) control variable


Answer: D

Which one of the following is a nonprobability sampling method ?


(A) Simple Random Sampling
(B) Stratified Sampling
(C) Cluster Sampling
(D) Quota Sampling


Answer: D

A research paper


(A) is a compilation of information on a topic.
(B) contains original research as deemed by the author.
(C) contains peer-reviewed original research or evaluation of research conducted
by others.
(D) can be published in more than one journal.


Answer: C

Which one of the following belongs to the category of good ‘research
ethics’?


(A) Publishing the same paper in two research journals without telling the editors.
(B) Conducting a review of the literature that acknowledges the contributions of
other people in the relevant field or relevant prior work.
(C) Trimming outliers from a data set without discussing your reasons, in a
research paper.
(D) Including a colleague as an author on a research paper in return for a favour
even though the colleague did not make a serious contribution to the paper.


Answer: B

Which of the following sampling methods is not based on probability?


(A) Simple Random Sampling
(B) Stratified Sampling
(C) Quota Sampling
(D) Cluster Sampling


Answer: C

Which one of the following references is written as per Modern Language
Association (MLA) format?


(A) Hall, Donald. Fundamentals of Electronics,
New Delhi : Prentice Hall of India, 2005
(B) Hall, Donald, Fundamentals of Electronics,
New Delhi : Prentice Hall of India, 2005
(C) Hall, Donald, Fundamentals of Electronics,
New Delhi – Prentice Hall of India, 2005
(D) Hall, Donald. Fundamentals of Electronics.
New Delhi : Prentice Hall of India, 2005


Answer: D

A working hypothesis is


(A) a proven hypothesis for an argument.
(B) not required to be tested
(C) a provisionally accepted hypothesis for further research
(D) a scientific theory


Answer: C

What is a Research Design?


(A) A way of conducting research that is not grounded in theory.
(B) The choice between using qualitative or quantitative methods.
(C) The style in which you present your research findings e.g. a graph.
(D) A framework for every stage of the collection and analysis of data.


Answer: D

“Sampling Cases” means


(A) Sampling using a sampling frame
(B) Identifying people who are suitable for research
(C) Literally the researcher’s brief case
(D) Sampling of people, newspapers, television programmes etc.


Answer: D

The frequency distribution of a research data which is symmetrical in
shape similar to a normal distribution but center peak is much higher, is


(A) Skewed
(B) Mesokurtic
(C) Leptokurtic
(D) Platykurtic


Answer: C

When planning to do a social research, it is better to


(A) Approach the topic with an open mind
(B) Do a pilot study before getting stuck into it
(C) Be familiar with literature on the topic
(D) Forget about theory because this is a very practical


Answer: A

In a thesis, figures and tables are included in


(A) the appendix
(B) a separate chapter
(C) the concluding chapter
(D) the text itself


Answer: D

A thesis statement is


(A) an observation
(B) a fact
(C) an assertion
(D) a discussion


Answer: C

The research approach of Max Weber to understand how people create
meanings in natural settings is identified as


(A) positive paradigm
(B) critical paradigm
(C) natural paradigm
(D) interpretative paradigm


Answer: D

Which one of the following is a non probability sampling?


(A) Simple Random
(B) Purposive
(C) Systematic
(D) Stratified


Answer: B

The research stream of immediate application is


(A) Conceptual research
(B) Action research
(C) Fundamental research
(D) Empirical research


Answer: B

Which of the following statements is not true in the context of
participatory research ?


(A) It recognizes knowledge as power.
(B) It emphasises on people as experts.
(C) It is a collective process of enquiry.
(D) Its sole purpose is production of knowledge.


Answer: D

Which of the following statements is true in the context of the testing of a
hypothesis?


(A) It is only the alternative hypothesis, that can be tested.
(B) It is only the null hypothesis, that can be tested.
(C) Both, the alternative and the null hypotheses can be tested.
(D) Both, the alternative and the null hypotheses cannot be tested.


Answer: B

A researcher is interested in studying the prospects of a particular
political party in an urban area. What tool should he prefer for the study?


(A) Rating scale
(B) Interview
(C) Questionnaire
(D) Schedule


Answer: C

Ethical norms in research do not involve guidelines for:


(A) Thesis format
(B) Copyright
(C) Patenting policy
(D) Data sharing policies


Answer: A

The conclusions/findings of which type of research cannot be generalized
to other situations?


(A) Causal Comparative Research
(B) Historical Research
(C) Descriptive Research
(D) Experimental Research


Answer: B

A good thesis writing should involve:


(a) reduction of punctuation and grammatical errors to a minimum.
(b) careful checking of references.
(c) consistency in the way the thesis is written.
(d) a clear and well written abstract.


Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(A) (b), (c) and (d)
(B) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(C) (a), (b) and (c)
(D) (a), (b) and (d)


Answer: B

Which of the following statements regarding the meaning of research
are correct?


(a) Research refers to a series of systematic activity or activities undertaken to find
out the solution of a problem.
(b) It is a systematic, logical and an unbiased process wherein verification of
hypothesis, data analysis, interpretation and formation of principles can be done.
(c) It is an intellectual enquiry or quest towards truth.
(d) It leads to enhancement of knowledge.


Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(A) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(B) (a), (b) and (c)
(C) (b), (c) and (d)
(D) (a), (c) and (d)


Answer: A

Jean Piaget gave a theory of cognitive development of humans on the
basis of his:


(A) Evaluation Research
(B) Fundamental Research
(C) Applied Research
(D) Action Research


Answer: B

“Male and female students perform equally well in a numerical aptitude
test.” This statement indicates a:


(A) statistical hypothesis
(B) research hypothesis
(C) null hypothesis
(D) directional hypothesis


Answer: C

When the purpose of a definition is to explain the use or to eliminate
ambiguity the definition is called:


(A) Persuasive
(B) Stipulative
(C) Theoretical
(D) Lexical


Answer: D

A deductive argument is invalid if:


(A) Its premises and conclusions are all true
(B) Its premises and conclusions are all false
(C) Its premises are true but its conclusion is false
(D) Its premises are false but its conclusion is true


Answer: C

In a Ph.D. thesis which one is the correct sequence for showing scheme of
Chapterisation ?


(A) Survey of related studies, Introduction, Design of the study, Data-Analysis and
interpretation, Conclusions and generalisations, suggested further study,
References, Appendix
(B) Introduction, Design of study, Data Analysis and Interpretation,
Generalizations, Conclusions and Survey of related studies and suggestions for
further research, References and Appendix
(C) Introduction, Survey of related studies, Design of study, Data-presentation;
analysis & Interpretation, Formulation of generalization & Conclusions,
Suggestions for further research, References & Appendix
(D) Survey of related studies, References, Introduction, Design of study, Data
analysis and interpretation, Conclusions and generalizations, Suggestions for
further research, Appendix


Answer: C

Which of the following is not the critical feature of qualitative research ?


(A) Actual settings are the direct source of data.
(B) Data take the forms of words or pictures.
(C) Seeking to establish relationships among measured social facts.
(D) Researcher becomes immersed in the situation, present or past related to the
phenomena.


Answer: C

A detailed description of methodology of research is required in


(A) Thesis/Dissertation
(B) Symposium/Workshop
(C) Seminar paper/Articles
(D) Conference and Seminar Papers

Answer: A

Research ethics has a direct connection more often with which stages of
research ?


(A) Defining and delimiting the scope of research.
(B) Problem formulation and reporting of research findings.
(C) Defining the population and deciding the sampling technique for research.
(D) Deciding about statistical techniques and data analysis.


Answer: B

For advancing knowledge, the latest strategy used by mankind is


(A) consulting an authority
(B) deductive reasoning
(C) scientific thinking
(D) inductive reasoning

Answer: C

There are two sets given below, Set-I consists of methods of research and Set-II indicates their procedural characteristics. Match the two sets and choose your answer from the codes given below :


(Research method)
a. Experimental method
b. Expost facto method
c. Descriptive method
d. Symbolic interactionism
e. Action research


(Procedural Characteristics)
i. Interventions to ameliorate a given situation
ii. Explaining patterns of behaviour in terms of meanings and their
representations which people share.
iii. Manipulating an independent variable in controlled conditions and measuring
its effect on dependent variable.
iv. Depending on primary and secondary sources of data.
v. Obtaining information concerning the current status of phenomena.
vi. Observing the effect on dependent variable and making probes into
factors/variables which explain it.
vii. Exegetic analysis.


Codes :
a b c d e
(A) i iii iv v vii
(B) iii iv v vi vii
(C) i ii iii iv v
(D) iii vi v ii i


Answer: D

In qualitative research paradigm, which of the following features may be
considered critical?


(A) Data collection with standardised research tools.
(B) Sampling design with probability sample techniques.
(C) Data collection with bottom-up empirical evidences.
(D) Data gathering to take with top-down systematic evidences.


Answer: C

From the following list of statements identify the set which has negative
implications for ‘research ethics’ :

(i) A researcher critically looks at the findings of another research.
(ii) Related studies are cited without proper references.
(iii) Research findings are made the basis for policy making.
(iv) Conduct of practitioner is screened in terms of reported research evidences.
(v) A research study is replicated with a view to verify the evidences from other
researches.
(vi) Both policy making and policy implementing processes are regulated in terms
of preliminary studies.


Codes:
(A) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(B) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(C) (ii), (iv) and (vi)
(D) (i), (iii) and (v)


Answer: C

In a research on the effect of child-rearing practices on stress-proneness
of children in competing school projects, the hypothesis formulated is that
‘child rearing practices do influence stress-proneness’. At the data-analysis
stage a null hypothesis is advanced to find out the tenability of research
hypothesis. On the basis of the evidence available, the null hypothesis is
rejected at 0.01 level of significance. What decision may be warranted in
respect of the research hypothesis?

(A) The research hypothesis will also be rejected.
(B) The research hypothesis will be accepted.
(C) Both the research hypothesis and the null hypothesis will be rejected.
(D) No decision can be taken in respect of the research hypothesis.


Answer: B

A research intends to explore the effect of possible factors for the
organization of effective mid-day meal interventions. Which research
method will be most appropriate for this study?


(A) Historical method
(B) Descriptive survey method
(C) Experimental method
(D) Ex-post-facto method


Answer: D

Which of the following is an initial mandatory requirement for pursuing
research?


(A) Developing a research design
(B) Formulating a research question
(C) Deciding about the data analysis procedure
(D) Formulating a research hypothesis


Answer: B

The format of thesis writing is the same as in


(A) preparation of a research paper/article
(B) writing of seminar presentation
(C) a research dissertation
(D) presenting a workshop/conference paper


Answer: C

Identify the important element a teacher has to take cognizance of while
addressing students in a classroom.


(A) Avoidance of proximity
(B) Voice modulation
(C) Repetitive pause
(D) Fixed posture


Answer: B

Which of the following research types focuses on ameliorating the
prevailing situations?


(1) Experimental Research
(2) Fundamental Research
(3) Applied Research
(4) Action Research


Answer: 4

In finalizing a thesis writing format which of the following would form
part of supplementary pages?


(1) Bibliography and Appendices
(2) List of tables and figures
(3) Table of contents
(4) Conclusions of the study


Answer: 1

Which of the following is susceptible to the issue of research ethics?


(1) Reporting of research findings
(2) Inaccurate application of statistical techniques
(3) Faulty research design
(4) Choice of sampling techniques


Answer: 1

A researcher attempts to evaluate the effect of method of feeding on
anxiety-proneness of children. Which method of research would be
appropriate for this?


(1) Survey method
(2) Case study method
(3) Experimental method
(4) Ex-post-facto method


Answer: 4

Which sequence of research steps is logical in the list given below?


(1) Problem formulation, Analysis, Development of Research design, Hypothesis
making, Collection of data, Arriving at generalizations and conclusions.
(2) Development of Research design, Hypothesis making, Problem formulation,
Data analyses, Arriving at conclusions and data collection.
(3) Problem formulation, Hypothesis making, Development of a Research design,
Collection of data, Data analysis and formulation of generalizations and
conclusions.
(4) Problem formulation, Deciding about the sample and data collection tools,
Formulation of hypothesis, Collection and interpretation of research evidence.


Answer: 3

32. Below are given two sets – research methods (Set-I) and data collection
tools (Set-II). Match the two sets and indicate your answer by selecting the
correct code:


(Research Methods)
a. Experimental method
b. Ex post-facto method
c. Descriptive survey method
d. Historical method


(Data Collection Tools)
i.Using primary secondary sources
ii. Questionnaire
iii. Standardized tests
iv. Typical characteristic tests


Codes:
a b c d
(1) ii i iii iv
(2) iii iv ii i
(3) ii iii i iv
(4) ii iv iii i


Answer: 2

The issue of ‘research ethics’ may be considered pertinent at which stage
of research?


(1) At the stage of problem formulation and its definition
(2) At the stage of defining the population of research
(3) At the stage of data collection and interpretation
(4) At the stage of reporting the findings


Answer: 3

In which of the following, reporting format is formally prescribed?


(1) Doctoral level thesis
(2) Conference of researchers
(3) Workshops and seminars
(4) Symposia


Answer: 1

The principal of the school conducts an interview session of teachers and students with a view to explore the possibility of their enhanced participation in school programmes. This endeavour may be related to which type of research?


(1) Evaluation Research
(2) Fundamental Research
(3) Action Research
(4) Applied Research


Answer: 3

In doing action research what is the usual sequence of steps?


(1) Reflect, observe, plan, act
(2) Plan, act, observe, reflect
(3) Plan, reflect, obsere, act
(4) Act, observe, plan, reflect


Answer: 2


There are two sets given below.
Set – I specifies the types of research, while Set –II indicates their characteristics.
Match the two and given your answer by selecting the appropriate code.

Set – I (Research types)
(a) Fundamental research
(b) Applied research
(c) Action research
(d) Evaluative research

Set – II (Characteristics)
(i) Finding out the extent of perceived impact of an intervention
(ii) Developing an effective explanation through theory building
(iii) Improving an existing situation through use of interventions
(iv) Exploring the possibility of a theory for use in various situations
(v) Enriching technological resources

Codes: (a) (b) (c) (d)
(1) ii (iv) (iii) (i)
(2) (v) (iv) (iii) (ii)
(3) (iii) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(4) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)


Answer: 1

Which of the sets of activities best indicate the cyclic nature of action
research strategy?


(1) Reflect, Observe, Plan, Act
(2) Observe, Act, Reflect, Plan
(3) Act, Plan, Observe, Reflect
(4) Plan, Act, Observe, Reflect


Answer: 4

Which of the following sequence of research steps is nearer to scientific
method?


(1) Suggested solution of the problem, Deducing the consequences of the solution, Perceiving the problem situation, Location of the difficulty and testing the solutions.
(2) Perceiving the problem situation, Locating the actual problem and its definition, Hypothesizing, Deducing the consequences of the suggested solution and Testing the hypothesis in action.
(3) Defining a problem, Identifying the causes of the problem, Defining a population, Drawing a sample, Collecting data and Analysing results.
(4) Identifying the causal factors, Defining the problem, Developing a hypothesis, Selecting a sample, Collecting data and arriving at generalization and Conclusions.

Answer: 2

The problem of ‘research ethics’ is concerned with which aspect of research activities?


(1) Following the prescribed format of a thesis
(2) Data analysis through qualitative or quantitative technique
(3) Defining the population of research
(4) Evidence based research reporting


Answer: 4

In which of the following activities, potential for nurturing creative and critical thinking is relatively greater?


(1) Preparing research summary
(2) Presenting a seminar paper
(3) Participation in research conference
(4) Participation in a workshop


Answer: 3

The components of a research design are:

(a) Comparison
(b) control
(c) Reactivity
(d) manipulation
(e) Non representativeness
(f) generalization

1. (c) , (d) , (e) and (f)
2. (a) , (c) , (e) and (f)
3. (b) , (c) , (d) and (e)
4. (a) , (b) , (d) and (f)

Answer: 4


The four major operations in scientific research are :


(a) Demonstration of co-variance
(b) Elimination of spurious relations
(c) Sequencing in terms of time order
(d) self-education
(e) Operationalization of personal choice
(f) Theorization

1. (a) , (b) , (c) and (d)
2. (c) , (d) , (e) and (f)
3. (a) , (b) , (c) and (f)
4. (b) , (c) , (d) and (e)

Answer: 3

A variable that is manipulated is known as :

Dependent variable
Control variable
Independent variable
Confounding variable

Answer: 3

A shift in attitude in respondents between two points during data collection is called


(1) Reactive effect
(2) Maturation effect
(3) Regression effect
(4) Conditioning effect


Answer: 3

The time-frame in which a study explores a situation or problem is also called the


(1) reference period
(2) age
(3) longitudinal
(4) retrospective time

Answer: 1

The major characteristic of correlation analysis is to seek out


(1) Differences among variables
(2) Variations among variables
(3) Association among variables
(4) Regression among variables


Answer: 3


From the list given below identify those which are called Non-probability sampling procedures’ :


(i) Simple random sampling
(ii) Dimensional sampling
(iii) Snowball sampling
(iv) Cluster sampling
(v) Quota sampling
(vi) Stratified sampling

Choose the correct option
(1) (i), (ii) and (Iii)
(2) (ii), (iv) and (V)
(3) (i), (iii) and 6V)
(4) (ii). (iii) and (V)


Answer: 4

The conceptual framework in which a research is conducted is called a


(1) Synopsis of research
(2) Research design
(3) Research hypothesis
(4) Research paradigm


Answer: 2

Which of the following is an example of a maximum performance test?


(1) Personality tests
(2) Projective personality tests
(3) Aptitude tests
(4) Interest and attitude scales


Answer: 3

In which of the following steps of research, the scope for creativity and
imagination is utmost?

1. Identifying the research problem and defining it
2. Figuring out the related studies and the techniques used by other researchers
3. Identifying variables and hypothesizing
4. Data analysis and presentation of results


Answer: 3

A college teacher does research with a view to depict the reality situations relating to home conditions of students and hostels provided for. Which of the following research format will be helpful to do so?

1. Experimental Research
2. Descriptive Research
3. Participant observation based research
4. Ethnographic Research

Answer: 3

when a large number of students with different performances levels are there in the class. For uniform imparting of educative interactions, a teacher should opt for a communication which is:

1. Top-down and linear
2. Technology – enabled
3. Individual – centric
4. Self – projected


Answer: 2

Which of the following statistical technique will be appropriate for data analysis when the observations are available in the form of frequencies?

1. Parametric ‘t’ test
2. Non-parametric ‘u’ test
3. Non-parametric ‘chi-square’ test
4. Parametric correlated ‘t’ test


Answer: 3


A research scholar while finally reporting the research results in the form of a thesis acknowledge the support of his/her supervisor in the preface. This will be treated as a

1. Sheer formality
2. Needed formality
3. Superfluous act
4. Part of ethically


Answer: 4

Which one of the following represents the correct order of sequence for reading skills in the context of research?

1. Read, question, recall, review, survey
2. Questions, survey, read, recall, review
3. Recall, review, survey, question, read
4. Survey, question, read, recall, review


Answer: 4


The research method which focuses on establishing causal relationships with control among variables – independent, moderator and dependent, is called

1. Ex post facto method
2. Survey method
3. Case study method
4. Experimental method


Answer: 4


What are the characteristic features of the Quantitative Research paradigm?


A. It is hypothetico-deductive
B. It is focused on natural settings
C. It lays stress on generalizations to the population characteristics
D. It emphasizes numeric data from a large number of people
E. It says that the literature review plays a minor role but justify the problem

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

1. A, C and D only
2. A, B and C only
3. B, C and D only
4. C, D and E only


Answer: – 1

What is the usual sequence of steps in the scientific method?


A. Hypothesis making by identifying the variables
B. Felt need which is creating the problem
C. Identifying the difficulty and problem statement formulation
D. Data analysis and interpretation
E. Collection of data using appropriate research tools
Choose the correct answer from the options given below

1. A, C, B, D, E
2. B, C, A, E, D
3. C, D, E, B, A
4. B, A, C, E, D


Answer: 2

Given below are two statements
Statement I: Qualitive research paradigm emphasizes participant perspectives and uses an empirico-inductive approach
Statement II: In the same research project, it is neither possible nor desirable to use both Qualitative and Quantitative research paradigms

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below

1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct


Answer: 3

Identify sampling procedures in which units are chosen giving an equal and independent chance


A. Quota sampling procedure
B. Stratified sampling procedure
C. Dimensional sampling procedure
D. Random sampling procedure
E. Systematic sampling procedure
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

1. A, B and C only
2. B, C and D only
3. C, D and E only
4. B, D and E only


Answer: 4

A null hypothesis is

(A) when there is no difference between the variables
(B) the same as research hypothesis
(C) subjective in nature
(D) when there is difference between the variables

Answer: A

The research which is exploring new facts through the study of the past is called


(A) Philosophical research
(B) Historical research
(C) Mythological research
(D) Content analysis

Answer: B

Action research is


(A) An applied research
(B) A research carried out to solve immediate problems
(C) A longitudinal research
(D) Simulative research


Answer: B

The process not needed in Experimental Researches is


(A) Observation
(B) Manipulation
(C) Controlling
(D) Content Analysis

Answer: D

Manipulation is always a part of


(A) Historical research
(B) Fundamental research
(C) Descriptive research
(D) Experimental research


Answer: D

Which correlation co-efficient best explains the relationship between creativity and
intelligence ?


(A) 1.00
(B) 0.6
(C) 0.5
(D) 0.3

Answer: C

Action research means


(A) A longitudinal research
(B) An applied research
(C) A research initiated to solve an immediate problem
(D) A research with socio- economic objective


Answer: C

Research is


(A) Searching again and again
(B) Finding solution to any problem
(C) Working in a scientific way to search for truth of any problem
(D) None of the above


Answer: C

A common test in research demands much priority on


(A) Reliability
(B) Useability
(C) Objectivity
(D) All of the above


Answer: D

Which of the following is the first step in starting the research process ?

(A) Searching sources of information to locate problem.
(B) Survey of related literature
(C) Identification of problem
(D) Searching for solutions to the problem


Answer: A

If a researcher conducts a research on finding out which administrative style contributes more to institutional effectiveness ? This will be an example of


(A) Basic Research
(B) Action Research
(C) Applied Research
(D) None of the above


Answer: C

Which of the following variables cannot be expressed in quantitative terms ?


(A) Socio-economic Status
(B) Marital Status
(C) Numerical Aptitude
(D) Professional Attitude


Answer: D

A doctor studies the relative effectiveness of two drugs of dengue fever. His research would be classified as


(A) Descriptive Survey
(B) Experimental Research
(C) Case Study
(D) Ethnography


Answer: B

The term ‘phenomenology’ is associated with the process of


(A) Qualitative Research
(B) Analysis of Variance
(C) Correlational Study
(D) Probability Sampling


Answer: A

The ‘Sociogram’ technique is used to study

(A) Vocational Interest
(B) Professional Competence
(C) Human Relations
(D) Achievement Motivation

Answer: C

Which one of the following methods serve to measure correlation between two variables ?


(A) Scatter Diagram
(B) Frequency Distribution
(C) Two-way table
(D) Coefficient of Rank Correlation


Answer: D

Which of the following phrases is not relevant to describe the meaning of research as a process ?


(A) Systematic Activity
(B) Objective Observation
(C) Trial and Error
(D) Problem Solving


Answer: B

Which of the following implies the correct sequence in an action research paradigm?
Options:-

(A) Act, reflect, plan and observe
(B) Reflect, act, observe and plan
(C) Observe, reflect, plan and act
(D) Plan, act, observe and reflect

Answer: D

The issue of research ethics is pertinent at which of the following Stages of research?

(A) Deciding the quantitative or qualitative tracks or both for pursuing the research problem
(B) Identification, definition and delimitation of research problem
(C) Defining the population, sampling procedures and techniques
(D) Data collection, data analysis and reporting of research findings/results

Answer: D

In the two sets given below, set-I embodies the list of research types while set-II provides their nature and characteristics. Match the two sets and give your answer from the code which follows:

Set I (Domain of teaching competencies)

(a) Experimental research
(b) Expost facto research
(c) Participant observation based research
(d) Grounded theory approach based

Set II (Specific Competencies)

(i) Generalizations follow rather than precede the observations in due course
(i1) Emphasizing the access to reality by sharing the perspectives of people
(iii) Getting at causal facts by retrospective analysis research
(iv) Describing the status and conditions as obtainable
(v) Controlling the extraneous variables and observing the effect of independent variable manipulated by the researcher on dependent variable

Options:-

(A) (@)-(v), (b)-(iii), (¢)-(ii), (d)-(i)
(B) (@)-(ii), (b)-(iii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(v)
(C) (a)-(iii), (b)-(1), (¢)-(iv), (d)-(i1)
(D) (a)-(i), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iii), (d)-(iv)

Answer: A

In which of the following research methods the emphasis is laid on naturalistic settings and meaning-giving processes?

Options:-

(A) Case study method
(B) Ex post facto method
(C) Experimental method
(D) Descriptive survey method

Answer: A

A variable that is manipulated is known as:

Options:-

(A) Dependent variable
(B) Control variable
(C) Independent variable
(D) Confounding variable

Answer: C

Formulation of a research problem depends upon:

(a) What is the object behind the researcher’s choice?
(b) What are the specific questions?
(c) What is the conceptual model?
(d) What negative factors to research upon?
(e) Reasons for unlimiting the study.
(f) Construction of hypotheses.

Options:-

(A) (c), (d), (e) and (f)

(B) (a), (b), (c) and (f)

(C) (b), (c), (d) and (e)

(D) (a), (c), (e) and (f)

Answer: B

Artifacts that arise and affect the internal validity in research are:

(a) History
(b) Randomisation
(c) Maturity
(d) Instrumentation
(e) Experimental Mortality
(f) Matching

Options:-

(A) (a), (c), (d) and (e)
(B) (d), (e), (f) and (b)
(C) (b), (¢), (d) and (f)
(D) (a), (b), (c) and (d)

Answer: A

The components of a research design are:

(a) Comparison
(b) Control
(c) Reactivity
(d) Manipulation
(e) Non-representativeness
(f) Generalisation

Options:-

(A) (a), (b), (d) and (f)
(B) (a), (c), (e) and (f)
(C) (c), (d), () and (f)
(D) (b), (c), (d) and (e)

Answer: A

The four major operations in scientific research are:

(a) Demonstration of co-variance
(b) Elimination of spurious relations
(c) Sequencing in terms of time-order
(d) Self-education
(e) Operationalisation of personal choice
(f) Theorisation

Options:-

(A) (b), (c), (d) and (e)
(B) (a), (b), (¢) and (f)
(C) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(D) (¢), (d), (¢) and (f)

Answer: B

With what name an attribute like height, weight or happiness that is measurable and that is assigned with changing values be called?

Options:-

(A) Variable
(B) Sample
(C) Statistics
(D) Heuristic

Answer: A

Which among the following provides the strongest evidence of cause-and-effect relationship between independent and dependent variables?

Options:-

(A) Descriptive statistics
(B) Non-experimental approach
(C) Co relational approach
(D) Experimental approach


Answer: D


A research report will contain:

(a) Financial accounts
(b) Prefatory parts
(c) Utilisation certificates
(d) Title page
(e) Table of contents
(f) Terminal chapters

Options:-

(A) (b), (d), (e) and (f)
(B) (c), (d), (¢) and (f)
(C) (a), (c), (d) and (e)
(D) (a), (b). (c) and (c)

Answer: A

The originality of a research topic will depend upon factors of:

(a) Uniqueness of the topic
(b) Utilitarian dimensions
(c) Support system
(d) Non-requirement of supervision
(e) Feasibility of the study

Options:-

(A) (@), (b), (¢) and (d)
(B) (a), (b), (d) and (c)
(©) (b), (¢), (d) and (e)
(D) (a), (b), (¢) and (e)

Answer: D

Which of the following is an incorrect statement?

(A) Archival research uses data collected and sometimes coded by someone else.
(B) Ex post facto research uses data that you collected before you came up with
your hypothesis.
(C) Using a scatterplot to graph your Correlational data will not tell you the direction of the relationship (positive or negative).
(D) Observational methods are used in both Correlational and experimental research.

Answer: C

The identification of a research problem involves:

(a) Selection of the academic area
(b) Demarcation of the study area
(c) Rejection of personal and collective choices
(d) Specific topics within the area
(e) Management of financial sources

Options:-

(A) (a), (b) and (c)
(B) (a), (b) and (d)
(C) (b), (c) and (d)
(D) (c), (d) and (e)

Answer: B

The advantages of secondary analysis in research are:

(a) It is inexpensive.
(b) There is no need to construct a measuring instrument.
(c) Data archives are a valuable source.
(d) Useful opportunity is provided to produce valuable knowledge.
(e) Provides less time to understand data.

Options:-

(A) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(B) (a), (0), (d) and (e)
(C) (b), (c) and (e)
(D) (d) and (e) only

Answer: A

Participatory research is also described as:

(A) Group-based
(B) Individual-based
(C) Community-based
(D) Government-based

Answer: C

One way to measure the extent to which a measure is free of random error is to compute its:


(A) Test-retest reliability
(B) Demand characteristics
(C) Content validity
(D) Experimenter’s bias

Answer: A

In relation to code of conduct in research, what does APA stand for ?

(A) American Psychological Association
(B) Australian Psychological Association
(C) Advanced Psychological Authority
(D) Association of Psychological Assessments

Answer: A

Qualitative researchers criticize quantitative research for its tendency towards:


(A) Reductionism
(B) Emphasis on Evidence
(C) Obsession with Creativity
(D) Focus on Empiricism

Answer: A

To reduce random error ? Which method is appropriate

(A) Administer the treatment in the same way every time
(B) Administer manipulation checks
(C) Select large sample size
(D) Administer the test after a gap of one week

Answer: A

The four approaches to knowing answers to research questions, according to Kerlinger, are

(a) Method of tenacity
(b) Method of intuition
(c¢) Method of authority
(d) Method of science
(e)Method of creativity
(f) Method of non-functionality

Code :

(A) (c), (d) (e) and (f)
(B) (a),(b),(c) and (d)
(C) (b).(d),(e) and (f)
(D) (b),(c).(d) and (e)

Answer: B

The information seeking strategies of students are :

(a) Entropy-oriented
(b)Overt
(c) Non-functional
(d) Indirect
(e) Third party
(f) Testing

Code :

(A) (b),(d),(e) and (f)
(B) (b),(c),(e) and (f)
(C) (a)(b),(c) and (f)
(D) (a),(b),(d) and (e)

Answer: A

When a reviewer reviews a research article without knowing the author’s name, it is referred to as:

Options:-

(A) Anonymous review
(B) Behind-the-curtain review
(C) Uncategorized review
(D) Blind review

Answer: D

Poster sessions in research conferences provide better opportunities for:

Options:-

(A) Focus group discussions
(B) Display of common interest
(C) Inter-personal interactions
(D) Formal speeches

Answer: C

The characteristics of scientific method of research are:

(a) Empiricism
(b) Objectivity
(c) Systematic
(d) Secretive
(e) Security related
(f) Predictive

Options:-

(A) (d), (e), (f) and (a)
(B) (a), (b), (c) and (f)
(C) (c), (d), (e) and (f)
(D) (a), (b), (d) and (e)

Answer: B

In a research setting, participants may act differently because they think they are getting special attention. This reaction of treatment group to the special attention rather than the treatment itself is called as:

Options:-

(A) Jung effect
(B) Marlov effect
(C) Attention deficit
(D) Hawthorne effect

Answer: D

A variable that measures the effect of a manipulated variable, is known as:

(A) Independent variable
(B) Confounding variable
(C) Dependent variable
(D) Controlled variable

Answer: A

Who among the following proposed theory of Multiple Intelligences?

(A) Sigmund Freud
(B) Jean Piaget
(C) Albert Einstein
(D) Howard Gardner

Answer: D

If you are to calculate Spearman’s rho, what kind of data you would enter?

(A) Actual Scores
(B) Ranks
(C) Nominal Data
(D) Dichotomous data

Answer: D

According to Jean Piaget, there are stages of cognitive development.

(A)2
(B)8
(C)6
(D)4

Answer: D

The purpose of review of literature includes:

(a) To understand the subject background
(b) To formulate research questions
(c) To find out relevant methodology
(d) To debate the ethical aspects of research
(e) To carry out meta-analysis of bibliography
(f) To identify the data sources

Options:-

(A) (b), (c), (d) and (e)
(B) (a), (b), (c) and (f)
(C) (c), (d), (e) and (f)
(D) (a), (b), (c) and (e)

Answer: B

Empirical research in social sciences is associated with:-

(A) Religious practices
(B) Fictional narratives
(C) Positivist philosophy
(D) Historical artifacts

Answer: C

Reasoning from a specific case to a general conclusion is known as:

Options:-

(A) Deductive logic
(B) Inductive logic
(C) Theoretical logic
(D) Scientific logic

Answer: B

Below are given a few key terms. Identify these which denote qualitative research
paradigm.

(a) Ex post facto method
(b) Ethnography
(c) Symbolic interaction
(d) Descriptive survey
(e) Narrative
(f) Experimental method

Options:-

(A) (d), (e) and (f)
(B) (a). (b) and (f)
(C) (b). (c) and (e)
(D) (a), (b) and (c)

Answer: C

The research in which the independent variable is manipulated is termed as
Options:-

(A) Ethnographic research
(B) Experimental hypothesis testing research
(C) Non experimental hypothesis testing research
(D) Hypothesis formulating research

Answer: B

In which type of research, the steps of research have to be cyclic?
Options:

(A) Action research
(B) Experimental research
(C) Grounded theory research
(D) Case study research

Answer: A

For which type of research, the action words —- ‘Control, manipulate and observe’ are most relevant?

Options:-

(A) Experimental research
(B) Historical Research
(C) Grounded theory approach based research
(D) Action research

Answer: A

A researcher while writing his/her thesis does not give the rationale underlying use of statistical techniques. This will be best described as a case of:

Options:-

(A) Technical lapse
(B) Ethical misconduct
(C) An error of commission
(D) An error of omission

Answer: D

The paradigm of research which focuses on the development of professional expertise of the researcher-practitioner is called:

Options:

(A) Action research
(B) Pure research
(C) Qualitative research
(D) Applied research

Answer: A

Identify those stages/steps of research in which ethical considerations become relevant.
Code:

(a) Identifying and defining research question.
(b) Postulating relationships among variables to advance a solution.
(c) Collecting data through use of research tools.
(d) Defining the population and sampling procedure.
(e) Data analysis and procedure employed.
(f) Reporting procedure of findings/ results.

Options:

(A) (a), (b) and (c)
(B) (b), (c) and (f)
(C) (c), (e) and (f)
(D) (b), (c) and (d)

Answer: C

In the two sets given below, Set – I provides the format of presentation and Set – Il gives the distinct features to go with them. Match the two sets and select from the code to indicate your answer.


Set —I (Format of presentation)
a) Thesis/ dissertation
b) Research paper
c) Workshop
d) Seminar


Set — II (Distinctive features)
(i) Based on free-wheeling of ideas
(ii) Target oriented group-based reflection
(iii) Reflective deliberations based on specific themes
(iv) Presentation on a summary of research done
(v) Systematic prescribed format


Options:
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (i) (iii) (iv) (v)
(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (v)
(C) (iii) (i) (ii) (v)
(D) (v) (iv) (ii) (iii)

Answer: C

Which of the following statements best reflect the meaning and characteristics of research?

Code:

(a) Research means challenging the status quo.
(b) Research is an endeavour to collect facts and information.
(c) Research is a synthesis of deductive and inductive processes.
(d) Research means proving one’s assertions and beliefs.
(e) Research is a careful review of reported studies.
(f) Research is a critical and passionate search for knowledge.

Options:

(A) (a), (b) and (c)
(B) (b), (d) and (e)
(C) (a), (e) and (f)
(D) (a), (c) and (f)

Answer: D

In the two sets given below, Set – I specifies the methods of research while Set — Il describes the critical feature associated with a method of research. Match the two and select from the code to indicate your answer.

Set -1 (Research methods)
(a) Experimental method
(b) Ex post facto method
(c) Historical method
(d) Ethnographic method

Set — II (Critical features associated)
(i) Generalizing to the population from a large sample
(ii) Establishing the patterns of events which have happened, through primary and secondary sources
(iii) Studying shared behaviour patterns
(iv) Establishing cause and effect through control
(v) Probing into the causal factors from the observed effects

Options:
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (iv) (v) (ii) (iii)
(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(C) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)
(D) (i) (i) (iv) (iii)

Answer: D

‘Research ethics’ is of critical importance in which of the following areas? Select your answer from the code given below:

(a) Data collecting
(b) Preparing a seminar paper
(c) Data analysis
(d) Participation in a conference
(e) Writing a thesis/dissertation
(f) Selecting a research problem

Options:-

(A) (a), (c) and (e)
(B) (a), (b) and (f)
(C) (a), (b) and (c)
(D) (d), (e) and (f)

Answer: A

While presenting the research outcomes and sharing the same with others, in which of the following research type, the style has to be impersonal?

(A) Narrative studies
(B) Action research based studies
(C) Ethnographic studies
(D) Causal comparative based Ex post facto studies

Answer: C

In the following statements identifies those which relate to ‘Norm-referenced testing’ (NRT).

Select from the code to give your answer.

(a) Covering a large domain of learning tasks with just a few items measuring specific tasks
(b) Emphasizing discrimination among individuals in terms of relative level of learning.
(c) Focusing on a specified domain of learning tasks with a large number of items measuring specific tasks.
(d) Interpretation required a clearly defined group.
(e) Interpretation required a clearly defined achievement domain.
(f) Emphasizing description of learning tasks which individuals can and cannot perform.

Options:-

(A) (0), (¢) and (f)
(B) (d), (¢) and (f)
(C) (a), (b) and (d)
(D) (a), (b) and (c)

Answer: C

In the list of statements given below which of them offer a suitable definition of research?
Give your answer by selecting from the code.

(a) Research means a repeated search
(b) Research is basically an answer to a question.
(c) Research provides an authentic solution to a problem.
(d) Research is an Endeavour to prove one’s hypothesis.
(e) Research is a meaning- giving process
(f) Research means drawing a sample from a defined population.

Options:-
(A) (b), (c) and (e)
(B) (b), (c) and (f)
(C) (a), (d) and (f)
(D) (a), (b) and (c)

Answer: D

Which of the following is an indicator of key behaviour in effective teaching as evident from researches?

(A) Engagement in learning by students
(B) Use of process and content questions during teaching
(C) Teacher affect in developing teacher-learner relationship
(D) Using student ideas and contributions

Answer: D

Ability to see and size up the situation creatively is most relevant at which stage of research?

(A) In formulating research hypotheses and procedures for testing them.
(B) At the stage of identifying and defining a research problem.
(C) In deciding and identifying the sampling procedures to ensure their representative character.
(D) In determining the research design and its execution.

Answer: B

In which of the following methods of research the independent variable has to be selected rather than manipulated?

(A) Descriptive survey method
(B) Ex post facto method
(C) Experimental method
(D) Exegetic research

Answer: B

Which one of the following is less oriented towards knowledge dissemination?

(A) Classroom
(B) Research Ethics
(C) Journal
(D) Seminar

Answer: B

Snowball sampling is the process of selecting a sample using:

(A) Networks
(B) Groups
(C) Snowballs
(D) Computer Programs

Answer: A

A tentative proposition with unknown validity that specifies a relationship between two or more variables is called:

(A) research problem
(B) research proposal
(C) research design
(D) research hypothesis

Answer: D

In which of the following research paradigms the focus of concern is on interpreting reality in terms of participants perspective?

(A) Experimental Research
(B) Ex-post facto Research
(C) Ethnographic Research
(D) Survey Research

Answer: C

Research design that needs to collect factual information on a continuing basis is classified:

(A) Longitudinal Study Design
(B) Pre and Post Study Design
(C) Cross-Sectional Study Design
(D) Double-Control Study Design

Answer: A

Identify the scheme which aims to encourage Social Science Research in Policy relevant areas so as to provide vital inputs in policy formulation, implementation and evaluation.

(A) ICSSR Fellowship
(B) Cognitive Initiatives
(C) ICSSR – EMPRESS
(D) ICSSR Research Projects

Answer: C

A shift in attitude in respondents between two points during data collection is called:

(A) Reactive effect
(B) Maturation effect
(C) Regression effect
(D) Conditioning effect

Answer: C

The time-frame in which a study explores a situation or problem is also called the:

(A) reference period
(B) age
(C) longitudinal
(D) retrospective time

Answer: A

From the list given below identify those which are called ‘Non-probability sampling procedures:

(i) Simple random sampling
(ii) Dimensional sampling
(iii) Snowball sampling
(iv) Cluster sampling
(v) Quota sampling
(vi) Stratified sampling

Choose the correct option

(A) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(B) (ii), (iv) and (v)
(C) (i), (iii) and (iv)
(D) (ii), (iii) and (v)

Answer: D

The major characteristic of correlation analysis is to seek out:

(A) Differences among variables
(B) Variations among variables
(C) Association among variables
(D) Regression among variables

Answer: C

The conceptual framework in which a research is conducted is called a:

(A) Synopsis of research
(B) Research design
(C) Research hypothesis
(D) Research paradigm

Answer: B

Which of the following research types has a potential for enhancing teaching competencies?

(A) Fundamental research
(B) Applied rescarch
(C) Impact assessment research
(D) Action research

Answer: D

A pilot study is also called a:

(A) Descriptive study
(B) feasibility study
(C) correlational study
(D) explanatory study

Answer: B

In research, reliability is that quality of a measurement procedure which provides:

(A) repeatability and accuracy
(B) punctuality and accuracy
(C) accuracy and speed
(D) speed and repeatability

Answer: A

The fish bowl draw is a method of drawing a/an:

(A) independent sample
(B) structured sample
(C) non-random sample
(D) random sample

Answer: D

A questionnaire that offers no scope for any respondent’s own view is called:

(A) closed-ended
(B) schedule
(C) open-ended
(D) unstructured

Answer: A

In experimental research based studies, the observations derived from which of the following variables are considered for statistical analysis?

(A) Independent variable
(B) Dependent variable
(C) Moderator variable
(D) Control variable

Answer: B

When the researcher does not know the identity of experimental and placebo groups, the study is termed as:

(A) Blind
(B) Double-blind
(C) Panel
(D) Cohort

Answer: B

Research that focuses on social inequality between men and women is called:

(A) Comparative Research
(B) Longitudinal Research
(C) Action Research
(D) Feminist Research

Answer: D

The easiest attitudinal scale which is a summated rating scale is the:

(A) Guttman Scale
(B) Likert Scale
(C) Thurstone Scale
(D) MLA Scale

Answer: B

Quantitative Research is also called the:


(A) Ethnographic Approach
(B) Unstructured Approach
(C) Descriptive Approach
(D) Structured Approach

Answer: D

In the research method, generalisations may be made that will be applicable to other situations of the same type. What is this called?

(A) Cohort Study
(B) Case Study
(C) Panel Study
(D) Blind Study

Answer: B

A hypothesis should be conceptually:

(A) convoluted, complex and generic
(B) complex, tough and general
(C) simple, clear and specific
(D) obscure, complicated and simple

Answer: C

Mailed questionnaire, observation, interview and collective questionnaire are instances of:

(A) Secondary sources
(B) Personal sources
(C) Primary sources
(D) Tertiary sources

Answer: C

The study of ‘why does stressful living result in heart attack’? can be classified as:

(A) Descriptive research
(B) Explanatory research
(C) Correlational research
(D) Feasibility research

Answer: B

During research, while recording observation if an observer rates an individual based on the rating given in another aspect of the interaction, this is termed as the:

(A) Evaluation effect
(B) Error of central tendency
(C) Halo effect
(D) Categorical effect

Answer: C

The formulation of a research problem can be compared to:

(A) Laying the foundation of a building.
(B) Building the walls of a home.
(C) Polishing the doors of a building.
(D) Constructing the ceiling of a house.

Answer: A

The research design is specifically related to which of the following features in research?


(i) Sample Selection
(ii) Formulation of a plan
(iii) Deciding about the tool for data collection
(iv) Hypothesis making
(v) Choice of a field of inquiry

Select your answer from the options given below:
(A) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(B) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(C) (ii), (iv) and (v)
(D) (iii), (iv) and (v)

Answer: B

Through which research method, the manipulation of an independent variable and its effect on dependent variable is examined with reference to a hypothesis under controlled conditions?

(A) Ex-post facto research
(B) Descriptive research
(C) Case study research
(D) Experimental research

Answer: D

Bibliography given in a research report

(A) Helps those interested in further research
(B) Shows the vast knowledge of the researcher
(C) Makes the report authentic
(D) Is an optional part of the report

Answer: A


Which of the following is a plagiarism checking website?

(a) http://go.turnitin.com
(b) http://www .researhcgate.com
(c) http://www.editorial.elsevier.com
(d) http://www.grammarly.com

Options

(A) (a) and (d)
(B) (b) and (c)
(C) (c) only
(D) (b) only

Answer: A

Identify the reasoning in the following argument:

Use of teaching aids in the classroom to enhance learning is important in a similar way as that of the use of ICT for production of knowledge’.

(A) Hypothetical
(B) Analogical
(C) Inductive
(D) Deductive

Answer: B

Participation in which type of research has the great potential for ensuring the improvement of the professional as well as work situation?

(A) Fundamental research
(B) Applied research
(C) Evaluate research
(D) Action research

Answer: D

Which stage in research creates a working thesis for the research paper by specifying and organizing the category of information?

(A) Research design
(B) Developing a hypothesis
(C) Review of literature
(D) Analysis of data

Answer: C

After identifying the different variables and establishing the logical reasoning in theoretical framework, the next step in the research process is to

(A) Conduct survey
(B) Generate hypothesis
(C) Focus on group discussion
(D) Use experiment in an investigation

Answer: B

Supervisor’s certification on the thesis

(A) Gives name and fame to the supervisor
(B) Clears different bottlenecks in the system
(C) Gives weightage to the scholar’s work
(D) Ensures originality of the work

Answer: D

Reference serves the purpose of

(A) Lending authenticity to the given content
(B) Insightful decision making
(C) Giving ornamental value to the research
(D) Exhibiting the great achievement

Answer: A

Participant observation is a part of:

(A) Philosophical research
(B) Mentalist Theory of language
(C) Mathematical research
(D) Ethnographic research

Answer: D

Plagiarism in research is:

(A) Creative use of previous data.
(B) Copying unscrupulously and making use of it.
(C) Quoting someone and citing him/her.
(D) Referring to previous data and working over it with new objectives.

Answer: B

Think-aloud procedure is:

(A) a part of secondary source of data.
(B) a technique used to investigate learner strategies and performance.
(C) a strategy of testing learners’ aptitude by providing primary sources.
(D) a necessary method in scientific research.

Answer: B

Critical language testing in a research report is:

(A) Testing language from an ethical point of view, revealing its misuses.
(B) Evaluating the stylistic characteristics of language.
(C) Critiquing the ideology of the author.
(D) Observing the gender role played by language.

Answer: A

What are the elements of evaluation plan?

(a) Purpose
(b) Resources
(c) Analysis
(d) Authority

Select the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) (a) and (c)
(B) (b) only
(C) (b), (c) and (d)
(D) (a), (b) and (c)

Answer: D

A hypothesis is:

(A) A certain and established finding.
(B) A part of the research question.
(C) A strategy of evaluating data.
(D) A tentative statement providing an explanation.

Answer: D

From the following list identify the qualitative research characteristics and select your answer from the codes given below:

(1) Creating purpose statements and research questions.
(ii) Stating the purpose and research questions in a broad way.
(iii) Collecting data based on words from a small number of individuals.
(iv) Collecting numeric data and statistical analysis.
(v) Using text analysis and Interpreting larger meanings of the findings.

Code:

(A) (ii), (iii) and (v)
(B) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(C) (i), (ii) and (iv)
(D) (i), (iii) and (v)

Answer: A

Position papers are:

(A) Compiling of academic articles.
(B) Providing review articles.
(C) Offering a synopsis of an extended research.
(D) Highlighting of issues and depiction of status.

Answer: D

Case studies are:

(A) Studies conducted in areas of genetics and microbiology.
(B) In-depth examination of a subject and its related conditions.
(C) A report on the existing sociopolitical condition.
(D) Specialized research in the areas of health and sanitation.

Answer: B

Tertiary source of data is:

(A) Films, hoardings and posters.
(B) Government gazette, newspapers and magazines.
(C) Information derived from both primary and secondary sources.
(D) Data collected from policy papers.

Answer: C

In which method of arriving at knowledge, the emphasis is on both proceeding from particular to general and from general to particular in a combined way?

(A) Inductive method
(B) Deductive method
(C) Scientific method
(D) Analogical method

Answer: C

Which of the following action sets best represent an action research cycle?


(A) Reflect, act, plan and observe
(B) Plan, act, observe and reflect
(C) Observe, plan, reflect and act
(D) Act, plan, observe and reflect

Answer: B

A good review of research literature aims at:

(A) Subjective analysis of the content.
(B) Provides information about the authors and their affiliations.
(C) Generates research questions and validating those questions.
(D) Conducts multiple task-based screening.

Answer: C

A researcher fails to reject the null hypothesis (Ho) in his/her research. What implications will it carry for his/her principal research hypothesis?

(A) Accepting the research hypothesis.
(B) Rejecting the research hypothesis.
(C) Not taking any decision on the research hypothesis.
(D) Improving the research hypothesis.

Answer: B

Which one of the following is the main feature of qualitative research?

(A) Avoids positivist assumptions and data analysis.
(B) Subscribes to preexisting categories.
(C) Collects data in numerical form.
(D) Uses empirical method of data analysis.

Answer: A

Which of the following research formats focuses on hypothesis testing and generalizations’?

(A) Experimental and ex-post facto research
(B) Intervention based action research
(C) Phenomenological and narrative research
(D) Case study research

Answer: A


At the stage of data analysis, in which quantitative techniques have been used by a researcher, the evidence warrants the rejection of Null Hypothesis (Hp). Which of the following decisions of the researcher will be deemed appropriate?

(A) Rejecting the (Hy) and also the substantive research hypothesis
(B) Rejecting the (Ho) and accepting the substantive research hypothesis
(C) Rejecting the (Hy) without taking any decision on the substantive research hypothesis
(D) Accepting the (Hp) and rejecting the substantive research hypothesis

Answer: B

In an intervention based action research process, which of the following is the usually recommended sequence?

(A) Plan, Act, Observe and Reflect
(B) Observe, Plan, Act, and Reflect
(C) Reflect, Plan, Act, and Observe
(D) Observe, Act, Reflect and Plan

Answer: A

In case the population of research is heterogeneous in nature which of the following sampling techniques will ensure optimum representativeness of sample units?

(A) Simple random sampling
(B) Stratified random sampling
(C) Cluster sampling
(D) Systematic sampling

Answer: B

A research scholar while reporting the research results in the form of a thesis acknowledge the support of his/her supervisor in the preface. This will be treated as a

(A) Sheer formality
(B) Needed formality
(C) Superfluous act
(D) Part of ethicality

Answer: D

In which of the following steps of research, the scope for creativity and imagination is utmost?

(A) Identifying the research problem and defining it
(B) Figuring out the related studies and the techniques used by other researchers
(C) Identifying variables and hypothesizing
(D) Data analysis and presentation of results

Answer: C

A college teacher does research with a view to depict the reality situations relating to home conditions of students and hostels provided for. Which of the following research format will be helpful to do so?

(A) Experimental research
(B) Descriptive research
(C) Participant observation based research
(D) Ethnographic research

Answer: C

Which one of the following represents the correct order of sequence for reading skills in the context of research?

(A) Read, question, recall, review, survey
(B) Questions, survey, read, recall, review
(C) Recall, review, survey, question, read
(D) Survey, question, read, recall, review

Answer: D

In grounded theory, researchers collect data using theoretical sampling until theoretical saturation is achieved. This process can be summarized in the following sequence.

(A) Sample theoretically decided = Collect data = Analyse data = Theoretical Saturation
(B) General research question = Collect data = Sample theoretically decided = Analyse data = Theoretical Saturation
(C) Sample theoretically decided > General research question = Collect data > Theoretical Saturation
(D) General research question = Sample theoretically decided -> Collect data > Analyse data Theoretical Saturation

Answer: D

Which of the following activities are performed by the researcher in an ethnographic research?

(a) Conducts structured interview with the members of the community
(b) Gets immersed in a social setting for an extended period of time
(c) Listens to and engages in conversation
(d) Tries to educate people about the harms of some evil practices

Choose the correct answer:

(A) (a) and (b) only
(B) (a) and (c) only
(C) (b) and (d) only
(D) (b) and (c) only

Answer: D

Which two among the following factors are responsible for transgression of ethical principle in research?

(a) Harm to the participants
(b) Lack of informed consent
(c) Not greeting the participants after the experiment is over
(d) Asking difficult questions

Choose the correct answer:

(A) (a) and (c) only
(B) (b) and (c) only
(C) (a) and (d) only
(D) (a) and (b) only

Answer: D

Which among the following is NOT related to qualitative research?

(A) Thematic analysis
(B) Case study
(C) Discourse analysis
(D) Survey method

Answer: D

Which of the two statements from the following statements are correct?

a) Sampling- related error is subsumed under the category non-sampling error
b) Sampling error doesn’t occur in multi-stage cluster sampling
c) Inaccurate sampling frame and non-response are examples of sampling — related error.
d) There is an inverse relation between heterogeneity of population and sampling error.

Choose the correct option

(A) (a) and (c) only
(B) (a) and (d) only
(C) (b) and (d) only
(D) (b) and (c) only

Answer: A

Match correctly the items of Column I with the items of Column II
Column I

(a) Ontology
(b) Epistemology
(c) Methodology
(d) Method

Column II

(i) Ideographic
(ii) Realism
(iii) Survey
(iv) Positivism

Choose the correct option:

(A) (a)-(ii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(iii), (d)-(i)
(B) (a)-(ii), (b)-(i), (c)-(iii), (d)-(iv)
(C) (a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii)
(D) (a)-(ii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii)

Answer: D

Arrange the steps of research in the sequence in which they are presented in the thesis

(A) Discussion, Review of Literature, Results, Conceptual Framework, Problem
(B) Review of Literature, Problem, Conceptual Framework, Results, Discussion
(C) Problem, Review of Literature, Conceptual Framework, Results, Discussion
(D) Discussion, Problem, Review of Literature, Conceptual Framework, Results

Answer: C

In Social Science, a central issue is the question of whether the social world can be studied using the methods of natural sciences. This statement refers to the issue of:

(A) Ontology
(B) Axiology
(C) Epistemology
(D) Etymology

Answer: C

Which among the following is not the outcome of grounded theory research?

(A) Concepts
(B) Narrative
(C) Categories
(D) Hypotheses

Answer: B

A researcher intends to make use of ICT in his/her research. What consideration should weigh most in such a decision?

(a) Appropriateness of the tool used
(b) Cost involved in procuring it
(c) Availability of tools in the department where research is to be undertaken
(d) Willingness of his/her supervisor to offer help
(e) The company from which the ICT equipment has been procured

Choose your answer from the following options:

(A) (a), (b) and (c)
(B) (c), (d) and (e)
(C) (a), (c) and (d)
(D) (b), (c) and (e)

Answer: A

A research scholar while submitting his/her thesis, did not acknowledge in the preface the help and support of the respondents of questionnaires used. This will be called an instance of

(A) Technical lapse
(B) Wilful negligence
(C) Unethical act
(D) Lack of respect

Answer: C

A university teacher plans to improve the study habits of students in his/her class. Which type of research paradigm will be helpful in this regard?

(A) Evaluative research paradigm
(B) Fundamental research paradigm
(C) Applied research paradigm
(D) Action research paradigm

Answer: D

In which of the following formats ‘Chapter Scheme’ of the document has to be formally approved by a research degree committee in the university?

(A) Thesis/dissertation
(B) Seminar papers
(C) Research articles
(D) Research monographs

Answer: A

Which of the following sampling procedures will be appropriate for conducting researches with empirico-inductive paradigm?

(A) Simple random sampling procedure
(B) Systematic sampling procedure
(C) Stratified sampling procedure
(D) Any of the non-probability sampling procedure

Answer: D

In the post positivistic approach to research which of the following types of researches got emphasized?

(a) Experimental research
(b) Phenomenological research
(c) Ethnographic research
(d) Ex Post facto research
(e) Action research

Give the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) (a), (b) and (c)
(B) (b), (c) and (d)
(C) (b), (c) and (e)
(D) (c), (d) and (e)

Answer: C

In which of the following formats, ‘Research Abstract’ is a must?

(a) Research article
(b) Seminar paper presented
(c) Thesis
(d) research synopsis

Choose the most appropriate option from those given below:

(A) (a), (c) and (d)
(B) (a), (b) and (d)
(C) (a), (b) and (c)
(D) (b), (c) and (d)

Answer: C

A university teacher intends to study the relationship between level of aspiration and achievement of rural children. Which design of research will be most appropriate in the context?

Options:

(A) Experimental research design
(B) Ex Post Facto research design
(C) Historical research design
(D) Survey research design

Answer: D

Hypothesis testing is the main concept of which type of research?

Options:

(A) Experimental research
(B) Historical research
(C) Survey research
(D) Exegetic research

Answer: A

Which of the following sequences represents the most logical sequence in doing research?

Options:

(A) Identifying and defining a research problem, formulating a hypothesis, testing of hypothesis and reporting the results
(B) Identify a research problem, defining the population and sample, collecting data and analysis of data
(C) Survey of research, defining the research problem, collecting data and presenting the outcomes
(D) Defining research variables, hypothesizing, testing of research and reporting of research outcomes

Answer: A

Which of the following provides the overarching vision research into socially relevant areas?

Options:

(A) ARILA
(B) IMPRINT
(C) NIRF
(D) SWAYAM PRABHA

Answer: B

Which of the following sequences correctly reflects scientific investigation?

Options:-

(A) Conceptualization, theorizing, deduced consequences, observation and testing
(B) Testing, observation, conceptualizing, theorizing and deduced consequences
(C) Theorizing, deducing consequences, testing, observing and conceptualizing
(D) Observation, conceptualization, theorizing, deduced consequences and method to verify them

Answer: D

A university department plans to undertake a study wherein attitudes, values and biases of teachers and students are to be probed with an eye on disclosing their patterns of adjustment. Which types of research methods will be considered appropriate in this context?

(i) Experimental method
(i1) Case study method
(iii) Descriptive method
(iv) Ethnographic method
(v) Historical method

Select the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) (i) and (ii)
(B) (ii) and (iii)
(C) (ii) and (v)
(D) (ii) and (iv)

Answer: D

When results obtained in a research study can be extended to a group larger than the sample (outside the context of the study) it is called

Options:-

(A) Internal validity
(B) Functional relationship
(C) External validity
(D) Hypothetical construct

Answer: C

In a thesis ‘Format and styles of referencing” have been inappropriately followed, this is an example of

Options:-

(A) Technical lapse on the part of researcher
(B) Unethical practice of the researcher
(C) Inability of the researcher to write a thesis
(D) Lack of commitment on the part of researcher to write a thesis

Answer: A

The research wherein the focus of concern is the exploration of applicability of theories to newly emerging practices and domains of knowledge is called

Options:

(A) Practitioner’s research
(B) Theoretical research
(C) Situational research
(D) Second level research

Answer: D

A university teacher wants to study the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and achievement motivation of graduates enrolled for computer science. Which research method will be appropriate to use in this context?

Options:

(A) Experimental research method
(B) Ex-post facto research method
(C) Descriptive research method
(D) Participant observation based method

Answer: B

In choosing a research tool which of the following are important considerations?

a. The validity of the research tool
b. The reliability of the research tool
c. Cost involved in terms of time and resources for use of research tool.
d. Face validity of the research tool
e. Opinion of the research supervisor

Select correct answer from the following options:

Options:

(A) Only c,d and e
(B) Only a, cand e
(C) Only a, band c
(D) Only b, d and e

Answer: C

The personalized and contextualized references are permissible in which type of reporting of research?

Options:

(A) Experimental researches
(B) Historical researches
(C) Ethnographic researches
(D) Survey based researches

Answer: C

The scope and potential for controversy is relatively more in terms of application of ICT and research ethics in which of the following research steps?

Options:

(A) In defining research questions and variables
(B) In deciding research designs and sampling procedure
(C) In making use of parametric and non-parametric statistics
(D) In data analysis and reporting research results

Answer: D

There are two sets given below in which Set I offers Types of Research and Set 11 gives their description. Match the two sets:

SET I SET II
(Types of Research) (Description)
(a) Fundamental (i) In-depth study with focus on typicality
Research
(b) Applied Research (ii) Intervention based ameliorative moves
(c) Action Research (iii) Exploring applicability of truths/principles to new situations
(d) Case Study Research (iv) Impact studies to watch effects
(v) Adding to corpus of knowledge by formulating theory

Choose the correct answer from the following options:

(A) (a) – (v), (b) – (iii), (c) – (ii), (d) – (i)
(B) (a) – (i), (b) – (ii), (c) – (ii), (d) – (iv)
(C) (a) – (iii), (b) – (iv), (c) – (i), (d) – (v)
(D) (a) – (ii), (b) – (iv), (c) – (v), (d) – (i)

Answer: A

In which of the following research methods, manipulation and control of variables, and randomization of sample are two of the basic requirements?

Options:

(A) Ex-post facto research
(B) Descriptive research
(C) Case study research
(D) Experimental research

Answer: D

Which of the following sequences correctly represents the steps of research using a quantitative paradigm?

Options:
(A) Hypothesis framing, Hypothesis testing, Conclusions and Reporting.
(B) Establishing a research problem, Hypothesis framing, Hypothesis testing, Generalization and conclusions and Implications of results
(C) Problem identification, Sample selection, Developing a research design and Field work.
(D) Defining a problem, Survey of related studies, Sampling, Data collection and Data analysis

Answer: B

In terms of research ethics, which of the following may be considered as the most vulnerable stage?

Options:

(A) Defining the purpose and scope of study
(B) Defining the population and sampling method
(C) Data analysis, interpretation and reporting of results
(D) Selection of research tools whether qualitative or quantitative

Answer: C

ICT application in research is most useful for which of the following reasons?

Options:

(A) For reducing the cost of research
(B) For academic establishment
(C) For enhancing scope of accessibility of research data
(D) For promoting dialogic interactions

Answer: C

Which of the following schemes of Government of India aims to support innovative research projects that are socially relevant, locally need based, nationally important and globally significant?

Options:

(A) SPARC
(B) STRIDE
(C) IMPRESS
(D) STARS

Answer: B

The research form which will be an appropriate fit for improving efficacy of formative assessment would be:

Option:

(A) Fundamental research
(B) Applied research
(C) Action research
(D) Ethnographic research

Answer: C

Match the following.
List-I (Terms used in research)
(a) A postulate
(b) A construct
(c) Variable
(d) Systematic error

List-II (Description)
(i) It causes obtained results to vary in a particular direction.
(ii) It is something which can change either quantitatively or qualitatively.
(iii) It is the statement of the principle assumed, in the absence of direct evidence.
(iv) Though not directly observable, is considered to exist.

Codes

(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
(B) (iii), (iv), (ii), (i)
(C) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
(D) (iv), (ii), (i), (ii)

Answer: B

A university teacher conducts a research study where lecture-cum demonstration method is used to assess the effect on students’ level of participation in terms of the socio economic status (SES) of their family and its habitat. Which variable in this study will be called an independent variable?

Option:

(A) Lecture-cum demonstration method
(B) Students level of participation
(C) SES of their family
(D) Habitat of the family

Answer: A

When a researcher rejects the “”Null Hypothesis’ Hy in his/her study and accepts an alternate Hypothesis H,, what type of error is likely?

Option:

(A) Type I error
(B) Type II error
(C) Both Type I and Type II error
(D) Neither Type I not Type II error

Answer: A

In which research design, the independent variable is ‘selected’ rather than ‘manipulated’?

Option:

(A) Experimental research design
(B) Historical research design
(C) Ex post-facto research design
(D) Descriptive survey research design

Answer: C

Identity the qualitative research designs from the list given below:

i) Exploring common experiences of individuals to develop a theory
ii) Controlling, manipulating, observing and measuring the effect
iil) Exploring the shared culture of a group of people
iv) Exploring individual stories to describe the lives of people
v) Extending generalizations from sample to population

Select the correct answer from the following options:

(A) i, iii and iv
(B) i, ii and iii
(C) ii, iii and v
(D) ii, iv and v

Answer: A

Which of the following shows the correct sequence in undertaking Action Research based studies?
Option:

(A) Planning, Acting on the plan. Observing and Reflecting
(B) Acting on the plan. Observing. Planning and Reflecting
(C) Reflecting, Planning. Acting on the plan and Observing
(D) Acting on the plan. Reflecting, Planning and Observing

Answer: A

Application of ICT in research is relevant in which of the following stages?

i. Survey of related studies
ii. Data collection in the field
iii. Data Analysis
iv. Writing the thesis
v. Indexing the references

Choose the most appropriate option from those given below:

(A) ii,ivand v
(B) i,iiiand v
(C) i, ii and iv
(D) ii, iii and iv

Answer: B

Match List I with List II

List I (Key Terms used in Research)

a) Hypothesis
b) Sample
c) Research Design
d) Research Tool

List II (Description of Terms)

i) Techniques used for collection of facts and information
ii) Devices for arriving at conclusions
iii) A tentative statement indicating potential solution of the problem of study
iv) A subset drawn from a defined set
v) Conceptual framework for conducting research

Select the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) a-i, b-ii, c-iii, d-iv
(B) a-ii, b-iii, c-iv, d-v
(C) a-i, b-ii. c-iv, d-iii
(D) a-iii, b-iv, c-v, d-i

Answer: D

A researcher reports his/her research finding to the research audience in such a way that his/her personal views are necessarily getting supported. This would involve issues relating to

(A) Technical aberration
(B) Research ethics
(C) Scientific rigour
(D) Personal predilection

Answer: B

Match the following.

List-I (Scale of measurement)
(a) Nominal
(b) Ordinal
(c) Interval
(d) Ratio

List-II (Description of properties)
(i) Classification and order
(ii) Classification
(iii) Classification, order and equal units
(iv) Classification, order, equal units and Absolute Zero

Codes
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)
(B) (ii), (i), (iii), (iv)
(C) (i), (ii), (iv), (iii)
(D) (iii), (iv), (i), (ii)

Answer: B

In which of the following, there is a greater flexibility in both the methods and process of research?
Option:
(A) Ethnography and phenomenology
(B) Descriptive survey and impact studies
(C) Experimental and observation based studies
(D) Ex-post facto and historical studies

Answer: A

In conducting an empirical study, a researcher employs a non-parametric test for data analysis and finds that the ‘statistics’ arrived at is ‘significant’ at .05 level. What decisions will be warranted thereafter?

(i) Rejecting the Null hypothesis (HO)
(ii) Accepting the Null hypothesis (HO)
(iii) Accepting the alternate hypothesis (H1)
(iv) Keeping the decision in abeyance
(v) Rejecting the alternate hypothesis (H1)

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

Codes

(A) (i) and (ii) only
(B) (ii) and (iii) only
(C) (iv) only
(D) (i) and (iii) only

Answer: D

Which of the following are non-probability sampling methods?

(i) Cluster sampling
(ii) Judgmental sampling
(iii) Systematic sampling
(iv) Snowball sampling
(v) Quota sampling

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) (i), (ii) and (iii) only
(B) (ii), (iv) and (v) only
(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv) only
(D) (iii), (iv) and (v) only

Answer: B

Given below are two Statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and other is labelled as Reason R:
Assertion A: In order to bridge the gap between theory and practice both fundamental and applied research formats have to be promoted.
Reason R: Fundamental research focuses on theory making and applied research is directed at exploring the applicability of theory in varied practical situations.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:

Codes

(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

Answer: A

Given below are 2 Statements:

Statement I: Qualitative research is an umbrella term to refer to various research strategies that share certain characteristics. The data collected have been termed “”soft i.e. rich in description.

Statement II: Quantitative research is mainly hypothetico deductive and employs mostly statistical techniques for data analysis.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is true

Answer: A