Torch Bearers Lesson Summary Notes and Explanation in English Class 10th


  1. The old merchant: A hard-working man who worked all his life to earn money.
  2. First son: The son who buys useless hay.
  3. Second son: The wise sone who invests his money in useful things.


This story is about an old man who worked hard all his life, buying and selling things. The result was that he gained a lot of money and became wealthy. He had two sons. He had a dilemma when he will become old — whom he should give his money to. He decided to give it to a son who would prove himself to be wiser. He gave each of them one rupee to resolve this problem. He then asked them to buy something that could fill the whole house with it.


The old merchant finds himself in a dilemma

There lived an old merchant who worked hard all his life to earn money. As the years passed by he became richer but when he grew old, he couldn’t decide what to do with his money. The old merchant had two sons but he decided to not divide among them instead of giving it all to the one who proves to be smarter than the other for which they will have to give a test.

The old merchant called his sons, gave them one rupee each, and asked them to buy something that will fill the house. They were not allowed to spend more than the given amount. The two sons were confused and reluctant to pick up the rupee but the old man insisted and asked them to take not more than a couple of days.

The sons think of how to spend their money

The first son wandered through the bazaar but couldn’t find anything to serve the purpose. He searched and searched and when he was about to give up, he saw a bullock cart full of hay and bought it. When he took it to his house, he noticed that the hay was not enough to cover even the floor.

The second son on the other hand didn’t go to the bazaar instead sat and thought for a long time. By the evening he got the idea to buy candles. He took the candles and lit two or three candles in each room, at once the whole house was filled with light.

One must serve his native country

The father was pleased by the second son’s wisdom and tells him that the rupees resemble the powers vested upon us and it is onto us how we utilize them and the house resembles our native country. Whether we use our talents to buy something useless as hay or spread light upon the country with our intelligence, strength, and time. As good citizens, we should use our powers and abilities to try to spread light in all parts of the country that is spending our lives in the service of our country.


Volunteering your time to support a cause you are passionate about is something you will never regret. It will enrich your life, familiarize you with your community, and connect you to people and ideas that will positively impact your perspective for the rest of your life. Helping your community is an opportunity for you to grow as a person, and to better understand how you fit into the world around you.

Part II


  1. Guru Nanak: He was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
  2. Mardana: A Muslim, who accompanied Guru Nanak Dev on his journeys.


This part of the story revolves around the same theme as the first part but revolves around different characters that are Guru Nanak and Mardana. In the course of their travel, they come across two villages where in the first one the villagers are not welcoming and don’t even offer them shelter for the night thus Guru Nanak and Mardana had to spend the night outside, whereas in the second village the villagers are completely opposite and very hospitable to their guests.


The story begins when Guru Nanak and Mardana while traveling went to a village for shelter to spend the night. The villagers were very rude and inhospitable and didn’t let them stay anywhere in the village, so Guru Nanak and Mardana had to spend the night in the open. When they were leaving to continue their journey, Guru Nanak prayed for the villagers that may they always stay in their village, this puzzled Mardana but he didn’t say anything.

The next night they went to another village where they were treated very differently from the first village. The villagers were welcoming, treated them kindly, and gave them shelter and food to eat. While leaving Guru Nanak prayed that the people of the village may not remain in their village but may be scattered throughout the country.

Mardana protested and asked Guru Nanak for the reason why he prayed for a good thing for the villagers who treated them badly and bad fortune for the ones who treated them well. Guru Nanak replied that it is better for the inhospitable and selfish people to stay in one place where they can do harm in one place only and the good people are too good to be left in one place, they have something that is needed everywhere hence they ought to be scattered so that they can take their light to other places.

We must grow into a citizen that people will want the light of our character and our influence everywhere. If we are good citizens who will be able to serve our country, we must carry light with us wherever we go. A good citizen is the centre of light wherever he lives and whatever he is doing, the greater the number of good citizens in a country the more enlightened will the country be as a whole.

We have to make up our minds whether to be good citizens or bad ones. Each one of us is a link in the chain that is our country. If we are weak and poor citizens then our country will suffer. Each of us, therefore, has the responsibility and we must see that our particular link in the chain is not a weak one.


The work of the good citizens is to fulfil the duties and responsibilities that they have towards the nation. If we want to do something for our nation, we must become the good citizens of the nation. It will enable us to do the right things, respect and care for other people’s rights, abide by the rules and regulations of the nation, help the old, poor, and needy people, and make the right use of the freedom granted to us. The act of doing good things for the nation will make us good citizens and will be a real service to the nation.