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This poem like most of his other poems is all about hope for equality and end of discrimination against the Blacks in America. The poem consists of 16 lines which can be divided into four stanzas having four lines each. The rhyme scheme of the poem is ABCB.
The poem begins with the phrase “I dream a world” which makes it clear that the poet is in hope for something better and in the rest o the poem, he will describe his dream. The poet says that he dreams of a world where no man will ever tease or discriminate against other men.
The other men are no other but the Blacks. They will be treated like Whites. In such a world there will be love and peace everywhere which will make it more beautiful.
The love here is the love for Blacks and peace is the eradication of discrimination. In this stanza, the poet expresses his desire for freedom from discrimination, love and peace.
The second stanza also begins with the phrase, I dream a world. The poet says that he desires a world where everybody (especially the Blacks) will enjoy the freedom-the freedom of speech, the freedom to roam anywhere etc.
There will be no greed i.e. everybody will lend a helping hand. There will be no disease of materialistic desires. In this stanza, the poet expresses his desire for freedom and a greed-free world.
In the 3rd stanza, the poet for the first time uses the word ‘black’. According to him, he wants a world where everybody be it White or Black, will have access to the resources without any discrimination. And there will be complete freedom in doing that.
In this stanza, he expresses her desire for freedom to use Country resources without any discrimination or restriction.
In the final stanza, he says that in such a world, there will be no misery (Where wretchedness will hang its head). And everybody will have access to joy. Thus the poem is all about the dream of the poet for the Blacks who have suffered on the basis of their race and colour.
Most of the poems of Langston Hughes like Dreams, A Dream Deferred, I too Sing America etc share the same theme.