Conjunctive Adverbs List and Their Meanings

Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs that connect independent clauses together. They provide a relationship between the preceding sentence and the subsequent sentence. Common examples include “however,” “therefore,” “moreover,” “furthermore,” “otherwise,” and “consequently.”

For example:

  • She was tired; however, she finished her work.
  • I didn’t study for the test; consequently, I got a low score.

They often indicate cause and effect, contrast, sequence, or other relationships between the clauses they connect. Conjunctive adverbs can appear at the beginning, middle, or end of a clause, but regardless of their position, they always serve to inform the reader or listener about the relationship between two independent clauses.

Conjunctive AdverbMeaning
howeverintroduces a statement that contrasts with or seems to contradict something that has been said previously
thereforefor that reason; consequently
furthermorein addition; besides
otherwisein circumstances different from those present or considered; or else
moreoverand what’s more; besides
nonethelessin spite of that; nevertheless
similarlyin a similar way
thusas a result or consequence of something
hencefor this reason
indeedused to emphasize a statement or response confirming something already suggested
converselyintroducing a statement or idea that reverses one that has just been made or referred to
accordinglyas a result; therefore
alsoin addition; too
meanwhileat the same time
thenintroduces the next item in a sequence
afterward(s)at a later or future time; subsequently
nextintroduces the next item in a sequence
besidesin addition; also
stilleven so; nevertheless
insteadas an alternative or substitute
likewisein the same way; also
specificallyfor a particular reason, purpose, etc.
namelythat is to say; specifically
equallyto the same degree (often used to introduce a contrasting or opposing argument)
as a resultbecause of something
additionallyin addition; furthermore
in contrasthighlights the difference between two items
certainlyused to emphasize the speaker’s belief that what is said is true
in factused to emphasize the truth of an assertion
for exampleused to introduce an illustrative example
for instanceused to introduce an illustrative example
in other wordsexpressing the same thing in a different way
on the other handintroduces a contrasting point
in particularespecially
againanother time; once more
in turnone after the other; respectively
incidentallyby the way
notablyespecially; in particular
finallyafter a long time, typically involving difficulty or delay
in additionused to add extra information after a list or to introduce a new idea related to the main point
comparativelyin comparison with something else
as ifas though
alternativelyanother possibility
comparativelyto a moderate degree as compared to something else
ratherto a certain or significant extent or degree
eventuallyin the end, especially after a long delay, dispute, or series of problems
that isused to clarify or explain something
nowintroduces a new point
by comparisondrawing attention to a difference between two situations, amounts, or amounts
in the meantimeduring the time before something happens
in summaryas a brief statement of the most important information
all in allconsidering everything
in shortbriefly; in summary
to clarifyto make clear or easier to understand
for this/that reasonbecause of this/that
in any eventwhatever happens; in any case
to illustrateto provide examples that explain or make something clear
on the contraryused to intensify a denial of what has just been implied or stated by suggesting that the opposite is the case
in conclusionused to introduce the final comments in speech, report, etc.
to sum upto describe or express the most important facts about something
yetbut at the same time; but nevertheless
as a consequencebecause of something
as an exampleto illustrate or clarify
by the same tokenin the same way and for the same reason
in spite of thisdespite what has just been said
by and largein general; for the most part
earlierat or near the beginning of a period of time or a process, event, etc.
in simpler termsin a clearer manner; without jargon or complexity
in either caseregardless of which of the two given options occur
laterat some time in the future
lastlyin the last place; finally
naturallyas a natural result
now and thenoccasionally; from time to time
of courseused to introduce a statement that is very obvious or already known
on balancewhen everything is considered
to be surecertainly; without doubt
in realitywhen everything is considered; in fact
in essencefundamentally; in its most basic nature