The most pressing problem in India today is the problem of unemployment. Though this problem is a common feature in almost all capital economies, yet its scar is particularly well writ on the social life of India.
The employment situation, as revealed in the statistics of the Employment Exchanges, is not at all encouraging. The number of unemployed hande is supposed to be in the neighbourhood of one hundred million. The problem of unemployment is going from bad to worse despite ambitious Plans.
There are many types of unemployment in India. First of all there is rural unemployment. Some of the villagers do not possess any land. Some have very small area of land. Thus all the villagers do not get employment Agriculture happens to be the only occupation in the rural areas of India.
But it can absorb limited hands, and that too, for three to four months throughout the year. The remaining period is wasted, idly and fruitlessly The problem of unemployment is equally bad in cities. Increasing use of machines is causing unemployment.
Big machines have taken the place of cottage industries. The machines have thrown a large number of people out of employment in cities and towns. Unemployment among the educated class of people is also a cause for concern.
Thousands and thousands of graduates and postgraduates come out of colleges and universities every year. Most of them are unable to find a job after the completion of their studies. Even engineers and doctors fail to get jobs easily.
The problem of unemployment, in fact, is more keenly felt in India than anywhere else. But it is not due to any single factor. It is the cumulative result of many factors. The root cause of this problem is the rapid growth of population.
Another cause of the problem of unemployment is the faulty educational system in the country. Education is not job-oriented. It is mainly theoretical. Most of the educated youths are unfit for any job. They do not have any practical knowledge. The system of technical education in our country is out of date.
Moreover, people in our country do not recognise the dignity of labour. They look down upon physical work Educated persons to search for jobs search in offices. Even educated people drawn from villages do not want to work on their farms. This is also one of the main causes of unemployment. This problem is causing anxiety and worry to the well-meaning people of India.
Previous post-independence governments did frame different Plans with The high objective to solve the hard problem of unemployment. The said Plans failed to yield the desired results. Rather the problem got aggravated with the passage of time-period of every Plan.
It will not be right or fair to draw the conclusion that the problem is untamable. We must remember that determination disarms difficulties. The present government must be determined to create a welfare State.
Every effort should be made to ensure rapid economic development so that the problem is tackled effectively. This economic development will create new avenues of employment for the young Indians.
Cottage industries should be revived because these industries can provide employment to millions and millions of people. Large-scale industries and cottage industries should work to their mutual benefit. The government and the people should cooperate with each other in checking the growing population.
People should be taught and persuaded to have small families. Family Planning methods should be made popular. Drastic changes are made in the present system of education. It should be made job-oriented.
Different types of technical institutions should be opened both in the urban and rural areas. some physical work should be made compulsory in schools and colleges for every boy and girl.
It is really good that the government has started giving loans to the educated youth to set up their own industries and business under the Self-employment Scheme.