Table of Contents
William Wordsworth’s pastoral poem “Michael” welcomes readers into the world of Michael, a shepherd. The poem, which is set in the magnificent environment of the Lake District, a place renowned for its natural beauty, was published in 1800 as a part of the collection “Lyrical Ballads.” Wordsworth, a well-known Romantic poet, transports the reader to the poem’s peaceful and rural surroundings by using descriptive descriptions and emotive images.
About the poet
William Wordsworth was an English Romantic poet who, together with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to usher in the Romantic Age in English literature with the publishing of Lyrical Ballads (1798). Wordsworth lived from 7 April 1770 to 23 April 1850. The Prelude, a semi-autobiographical poem about Wordsworth’s early years that he altered and enlarged several times, is typically regarded as his greatest work. Before his wife gave it a posthumous title and published it in the year of his passing, it was more often known as “the poem to Coleridge.” Wordsworth served as Poet Laureate from 1843 until his death on April 23, 1850, from pleurisy.
If from the public way you turn your steps Up the tumultuous brook of Green-head Ghyll, You will suppose that with an upright path Your feet must struggle; in such bold ascent The pastoral mountains front you, face to face. But, courage! for around that boisterous brook The mountains have all opened out themselves, And made a hidden valley of their own. No habitation can be seen; but they Who journey thither find themselves alone With a few sheep, with rocks and stones, and kites That overhead are sailing in the sky. It is in truth an utter solitude; Nor should I have made mention of this Dell But for one object which you might pass by, Might see and notice not. Beside the brook Appears a straggling heap of unhewn stones! And to that simple object appertains A story--unenriched with strange events, Yet not unfit, I deem, for the fireside, Or for the summer shade. It was the first Of those domestic tales that spake to me Of Shepherds, dwellers in the valleys, men Whom I already loved;--not verily For their own sakes, but for the fields and hills Where was their occupation and abode. And hence this Tale, while I was yet a Boy Careless of books, yet having felt the power Of Nature, by the gentle agency Of natural objects, led me on to feel For passions that were not my own, and think (At random and imperfectly indeed) On man, the heart of man, and human life. Therefore, although it be a history Homely and rude, I will relate the same For the delight of a few natural hearts; And, with yet fonder feeling, for the sake Of youthful Poets, who among these hills Will be my second self when I am gone.
Wordsworth paints a beautiful picture of the landscape that Michael lives on in this first section of the poem, “Michael,” making it appear like a paradise. Greenhead Ghyll is a solitary valley located in a valley surrounded by towering mountains. There is a tiny river, and there are some uncut stones at the side of the river. This location has a long history of unusual occurrences and shepherd-related stories. The poet is still a little lad at this stage, unconcerned with literature but aware of the influence of the natural world. As he learns more about the locals and their way of life, he begins to reflect “on man, the heart of man, and human life.” Here, the poet presents the ‘homely and rude’ existence of a shepherd, the topic of the poem.
Upon the forest-side in Grasmere Vale There dwelt a Shepherd, Michael was his name; An old man, stout of heart, and strong of limb. His bodily frame had been from youth to age Of an unusual strength: his mind was keen, Intense, and frugal, apt for all affairs, And in his shepherd's calling he was prompt And watchful more than ordinary men. Hence had he learned the meaning of all winds, Of blasts of every tone; and oftentimes, When others heeded not, he heard the South Make subterraneous music, like the noise Of bagpipers on distant Highland hills. The Shepherd, at such warning, of his flock Bethought him, and he to himself would say, "The winds are now devising work for me!" And, truly, at all times, the storm, that drives The traveller to a shelter, summoned him Up to the mountains: he had been alone Amid the heart of many thousand mists, That came to him, and left him, on the heights. So lived he till his eightieth year was past. And grossly that man errs, who should suppose That the green valleys, and the streams and rocks, Were things indifferent to the Shepherd's thoughts. Fields, where with cheerful spirits he had breathed The common air; hills, which with vigorous step He had so often climbed; which had impressed So many incidents upon his mind Of hardship, skill or courage, joy or fear; Which, like a book, preserved the memory Of the dumb animals, whom he had saved, Had fed or sheltered, linking to such acts The certainty of honourable gain; Those fields, those hills--what could they less? had laid Strong hold on his affections, were to him A pleasurable feeling of blind love, The pleasure which there is in life itself .
He introduces “Michael,” the poem’s main character, with these words. He was an elderly man who was “strong of limb and heart.” He was more punctual and cautious than the average individual because of his line of work. He was capable of comprehending how winds worked. He predicted the storm when the south wind blew, so he hastened to the mountaintop to bring his sheep to safety. He could recall several instances of adversity, bravery, skill, happiness, or terror. He saw the hills as a book where he could read about many different experiences. He enjoyed the sensation of blind love for the fields.
His days had not been passed in singleness. His Helpmate was a comely matron, old-- Though younger than himself full twenty years. She was a woman of a stirring life, Whose heart was in her house: two wheels she had Of antique form; this large, for spinning wool; That small, for flax; and, if one wheel had rest, It was because the other was at work. The Pair had but one inmate in their house, An only Child, who had been born to them When Michael, telling o'er his years, began To deem that he was old,--in shepherd's phrase, With one foot in the grave. This only Son, With two brave sheep-dogs tried in many a storm, The one of an inestimable worth, Made all their household. I may truly say, That they were as a proverb in the vale For endless industry. When day was gone, And from their occupations out of doors The Son and Father were come home, even then, Their labour did not cease; unless when all Turned to the cleanly supper-board, and there, Each with a mess of pottage and skimmed milk, Sat round the basket piled with oaten cakes, And their plain home-made cheese. Yet when the meal Was ended, Luke (for so the Son was named) And his old Father both betook themselves To such convenient work as might employ Their hands by the fireside; perhaps to card Wool for the Housewife's spindle, or repair Some injury done to sickle, flail, or scythe, Or other implement of house or field.
Wordsworth discusses Michael’s wife and their son between lines 78 and 109. Twenty years separate him and his wife. She was a domestically aware, down-to-earth woman. She possessed two wheels, one for flax and the other for spinning wool. They had a son when they were elderly. The small boy, together with the family’s two sheepdogs, appears to have assisted his parents from a very young age. Together, the three depict the peasants’ laboriousness. Even after finishing their labor for the day, Michael and Luke continue to fix plows, sickles, or clean wool. The speaker describes how they depend on nature in its entirety.
Down from the ceiling, by the chimney's edge, That in our ancient uncouth country style With huge and black projection overbrowed Large space beneath, as duly as the light Of day grew dim the Housewife hung a lamp, An aged utensil, which had performed Service beyond all others of its kind. Early at evening did it burn--and late, Surviving comrade of uncounted hours, Which, going by from year to year, had found, And left the couple neither gay perhaps Nor cheerful, yet with objects and with hopes, Living a life of eager industry. And now, when Luke had reached his eighteenth year, There by the light of this old lamp they sate, Father and Son, while far into the night The Housewife plied her own peculiar work, Making the cottage through the silent hours Murmur as with the sound of summer flies. This light was famous in its neighbourhood, And was a public symbol of the life That thrifty Pair had lived. For, as it chanced, Their cottage on a plot of rising ground Stood single, with large prospect, north and south, High into Easedale, up to Dunmail-Raise, And westward to the village near the lake; And from this constant light, so regular And so far seen, the House itself, by all Who dwelt within the limits of the vale, Both old and young, was named The Evening Star.
Wordsworth provides a detailed account of the house and their daily lives in lines 110 to 139. They resided in a cottage that was built on a big land projection. Being a homemaker, Isabella turns on an antique lamp that was hanging from the ceiling when dusk fell. The family’s work is symbolized by the light in the home, which also serves as the property’s name. Because the three continue to work in their cottage using their separate sorts of equipment after the other villagers have gone home to bed, the residence earned the nickname “Evening Star.”
Thus living on through such a length of years, The Shepherd, if he loved himself, must needs Have loved his Helpmate; but to Michael's heart This son of his old age was yet more dear-- Less from instinctive tenderness, the same Fond spirit that blindly works in the blood of all-- Than that a child, more than all other gifts That earth can offer to declining man, Brings hope with it, and forward-looking thoughts, And stirrings of inquietude, when they By tendency of nature needs must fail. Exceeding was the love he bare to him, His heart and his heart's joy! For oftentimes Old Michael, while he was a babe in arms, Had done him female service, not alone For pastime and delight, as is the use Of fathers, but with patient mind enforced To acts of tenderness; and he had rocked His cradle, as with a woman's gentle hand. And, in a later time, ere yet the Boy Had put on boy's attire, did Michael love, Albeit of a stern unbending mind, To have the Young-one in his sight, when he Wrought in the field, or on his shepherd's stool Sate with a fettered sheep before him stretched Under the large old oak, that near his door Stood single, and, from matchless depth of shade, Chosen for the Shearer's covert from the sun, Thence in our rustic dialect was called The Clipping Tree, a name which yet it bears. There, while they two were sitting in the shade, With others round them, earnest all and blithe, Would Michael exercise his heart with looks Of fond correction and reproof bestowed Upon the Child, if he disturbed the sheep By catching at their legs, or with his shouts Scared them, while they lay still beneath the shears.
Wordsworth depicts the relationship between the father and son in these lines from “Michael,” between lines 140 and 176. The shepherd cherished his wife Isabel, but after welcoming Luke into their family, he grew to like his son even more. Because Luke represented a promise for his future, he loved his son more than any other parent could. Michael views having a son in old age as a gift if a man “by the tendency of nature needs to fail.”, rather than caring for the kid as a hobby when he was a newborn, he did it with the tenderness of a mother. Wordsworth also effectively captures the relationship between a father and son in the workplace at a very young age. At an early age, Michael appears to take the kid to the field, where he will check on him to make sure he gets along with the sheep while also keeping an eye out for any tantrums that would frighten the sheep away. This is done beneath the clip tree, an oak tree.
And when by Heaven's good grace the boy grew up A healthy Lad, and carried in his cheek Two steady roses that were five years old; Then Michael from a winter coppice cut With his own hand a sapling, which he hooped With iron, making it throughout in all Due requisites a perfect shepherd's staff, And gave it to the Boy; wherewith equipt He as a watchman oftentimes was placed At gate or gap, to stem or turn the flock; And, to his office prematurely called, There stood the urchin, as you will divine, Something between a hindrance and a help, And for this cause not always, I believe, Receiving from his Father hire of praise; Though nought was left undone which staff, or voice, Or looks, or threatening gestures, could perform. But soon as Luke, full ten years old, could stand Against the mountain blasts; and to the heights, Not fearing toil, nor length of weary ways, He with his Father daily went, and they Were as companions, why should I relate That objects which the Shepherd loved before Were dearer now? that from the Boy there came Feelings and emanations--things which were Light to the sun and music to the wind; And that the old Man's heart seemed born again? Thus in his Father's sight the Boy grew up: And now, when he had reached his eighteenth year, He was his comfort and his daily hope.
Between lines 177 and 206 in the poem “Michael,” the poet provides a glimpse of Luke’s development into an adult of eighteen years under the care and direction of his father. Luke’s training to watch after the sheep began when Michael gave him the shepherd’s stick at the age of five. However, given his youth, his works were more of a burden than an aid. But as he grew older, he developed into a confident young man who was not scared of any hard labor. As a result, when he developed into an eighteen-year-old healthy young man, he began to accompany his father.
While in this sort the simple household lived From day to day, to Michael's ear there came Distressful tidings. Long before the time Of which I speak, the Shepherd had been bound In surety for his brother's son, a man Of an industrious life, and ample means; But unforeseen misfortunes suddenly Had prest upon him; and old Michael now Was summoned to discharge the forfeiture, A grievous penalty, but little less Than half his substance. This unlooked-for claim At the first hearing, for a moment took More hope out of his life than he supposed That any old man ever could have lost. As soon as he had armed himself with strength To look his trouble in the face, it seemed The Shepherd's sole resource to sell at once A portion of his patrimonial fields. Such was his first resolve; he thought again, And his heart failed him. "Isabel," said he, Two evenings after he had heard the news, "I have been toiling more than seventy years, And in the open sunshine of God's love Have we all lived; yet, if these fields of ours Should pass into a stranger's hand, I think That I could not lie quiet in my grave. Our lot is a hard lot; the sun himself Has scarcely been more diligent than I; And I have lived to be a fool at last To my own family. An evil man That was, and made an evil choice, if he Were false to us; and, if he were not false, There are ten thousand to whom loss like this Had been no sorrow. I forgive him;--but 'Twere better to be dumb than to talk thus. "When I began, my purpose was to speak Of remedies and of a cheerful hope. Our Luke shall leave us, Isabel; the land Shall not go from us, and it shall be free; He shall possess it, free as is the wind That passes over it. We have, thou know'st, Another kinsman--he will be our friend In this distress. He is a prosperous man, Thriving in trade and Luke to him shall go, And with his kinsman's help and his own thrift He quickly will repair this loss, and then He may return to us. If here he stay, What can be done? Where every one is poor, What can be gained?" At this the old Man paused, And Isabel sat silent, for her mind Was busy, looking back into past times. There's Richard Bateman, thought she to herself, He was a parish-boy--at the church-door They made a gathering for him, shillings, pence, And halfpennies, wherewith the neighbours bought A basket, which they filled with pedlar's wares; And, with this basket on his arm, the lad Went up to London, found a master there, Who, out of many, chose the trusty boy To go and overlook his merchandise Beyond the seas; where he grew wondrous rich, And left estates and monies to the poor, And, at his birth-place, built a chapel floored With marble, which he sent from foreign lands. These thoughts, and many others of like sort, Passed quickly through the mind of Isabel, And her face brightened. The old Man was glad, And thus resumed:--"Well, Isabel! this scheme These two days has been meat and drink to me. Far more than we have lost is left us yet. --We have enough--I wish indeed that I Were younger;--but this hope is a good hope. Make ready Luke's best garments, of the best Buy for him more, and let us send him forth To-morrow, or the next day, or to-night: --If he could go, the boy should go to-night." Here Michael ceased, and to the fields went forth With a light heart. The Housewife for five days Was restless morn and night, and all day long Wrought on with her best fingers to prepare. Things needful for the journey of her Son. But Isabel was glad when Sunday came To stop her in her work: for, when she lay By Michael's side, she through the last two nights Heard him, how he was troubled in his sleep: And when they rose at morning she could see That all his hopes were gone. That day at noon She said to Luke, while they two by themselves Were sitting at the door, "Thou must not go: We have no other Child but thee to lose, None to remember--do not go away, For if thou leave thy Father he will die." The Youth made answer with a jocund voice; And Isabel, when she had told her fears, Recovered heart. That evening her best fare Did she bring forth, and all together sat Like happy people round a Christmas fire.
Wordsworth inserts the twist into this amusing story in line 207 when a distressing incident occurs and Michael is asked to pay off his nephew’s debt. Michael is aware that making the debt will reduce his fortune by 50 percent. He then has an idea and chooses to hire Luke to work for a rich Kinsman in the city. Because he has seen several young lads who move to the metropolis become wealthy. He believes that doing the same will enable him to pay off his debt without having to sell his home. Isabel is concerned about her husband’s position while organizing the stuff she needs for her trip. Knowing her heart, Luke gives her comfort and makes the decision to head into the city.
With daylight Isabel resumed her work; And all the ensuing week the house appeared As cheerful as a grove in Spring: at length The expected letter from their kinsman came, With kind assurances that he would do His utmost for the welfare of the Boy; To which requests were added, that forthwith He might be sent to him. Ten times or more The letter was read over, Isabel Went forth to show it to the neighbours round; Nor was there at that time on English land A prouder heart than Luke's. When Isabel Had to her house returned, the old man said, "He shall depart to-morrow." To this word The Housewife answered, talking much of things Which, if at such short notice he should go, Would surely be forgotten. But at length She gave consent, and Michael was at ease. Near the tumultuous brook of Green-head Ghyll, In that deep valley, Michael had designed To build a Sheep-fold; and, before he heard The tidings of his melancholy loss, For this same purpose he had gathered up A heap of stones, which by the streamlet's edge Lay thrown together, ready for the work. With Luke that evening thitherward he walked: And soon as they had reached the place he stopped, And thus the old Man spake to him:--"My Son, To-morrow thou wilt leave me: with full heart I look upon thee, for thou art the same That wert a promise to me ere thy birth, And all thy life hast been my daily joy. I will relate to thee some little part Of our two histories; 'twill do thee good When thou art from me, even if I should touch On things thou canst not know of.--After thou First cam'st into the world--as oft befalls To new-born infants--thou didst sleep away Two days, and blessings from thy Father's tongue Then fell upon thee. Day by day passed on, And still I loved thee with increasing love. Never to living ear came sweeter sounds Than when I heard thee by our own fireside First uttering, without words, a natural tune; While thou, a feeding babe, didst in thy joy Sing at thy Mother's breast. Month followed month, And in the open fields my life was passed, And on the mountains; else I think that thou Hadst been brought up upon thy Father's knees. But we were playmates, Luke: among these hills, As well thou knowest, in us the old and young Have played together, nor with me didst thou Lack any pleasure which a boy can know." Luke had a manly heart; but at these words He sobbed aloud. The old Man grasped his hand, And said, "Nay, do not take it so--I see That these are things of which I need not speak.
These lines effectively convey the father and son’s emotional interactions as well as the exhilaration of sending the youngster to the metropolis. The week is spent by the family getting ready for his journey. The day before he leaves, Michael also brings him to the valley where he intends to construct a sheepfold. He thinks back on all the times he has spent with little Luke and declares his affection for the child. The son cries as a result of his father’s emotional aspect.
--Even to the utmost I have been to thee A kind and a good Father: and herein I but repay a gift which I myself Received at others' hands; for, though now old Beyond the common life of man, I still Remember them who loved me in my youth. Both of them sleep together: here they lived, As all their Forefathers had done; and, when At length their time was come, they were not loth To give their bodies to the family mould. I wished that thou should'st live the life they lived: But, 'tis a long time to look back, my Son, And see so little gain from threescore years. These fields were burthened when they came to me; Till I was forty years of age, not more Than half of my inheritance was mine. I toiled and toiled; God blessed me in my work, And till these three weeks past the land was free. --It looks as if it never could endure Another Master. Heaven forgive me, Luke, If I judge ill for thee, but it seems good That thou should'st go." At this the old Man paused; Then, pointing to the stones near which they stood, Thus, after a short silence, he resumed: "This was a work for us; and now, my Son, It is a work for me. But, lay one stone-- Here, lay it for me, Luke, with thine own hands. Nay, Boy, be of good hope;--we both may live To see a better day. At eighty-four I still am strong and hale;--do thou thy part; I will do mine.--I will begin again With many tasks that were resigned to thee: Up to the heights, and in among the storms, Will I without thee go again, and do All works which I was wont to do alone, Before I knew thy face.--Heaven bless thee, Boy! Thy heart these two weeks has been beating fast With many hopes; it should be so--yes--yes-- I knew that thou could'st never have a wish To leave me, Luke: thou hast been bound to me Only by links of love: when thou art gone, What will be left to us!--But, I forget My purposes. Lay now the corner-stone, As I requested; and hereafter, Luke, When thou art gone away, should evil men Be thy companions, think of me, my Son, And of this moment; hither turn thy thoughts, And God will strengthen thee: amid all fear And all temptation, Luke, I pray that thou May'st bear in mind the life thy Fathers lived, Who, being innocent, did for that cause Bestir them in good deeds. Now, fare thee well-- When thou return'st, thou in this place wilt see A work which is not here: a covenant Twill be between us; but, whatever fate Befall thee, I shall love thee to the last, And bear thy memory with me to the grave."
Michael goes on to discuss his father and their labor in the field in these further lines. In addition, he explains to the youngster why he was sent away, despite his personal desire to retain him. Additionally, he proposes that the youngster lay the cornerstone in the hopes that it would help him remember the sacrifices made by both his parents and himself. Luke is then told that he would love him till the very end.
The Shepherd ended here; and Luke stooped down, And, as his Father had requested, laid The first stone of the Sheep-fold. At the sight The old Man's grief broke from him; to his heart He pressed his Son, he kissed him and wept; And to the house together they returned. --Hushed was that House in peace, or seeming peace, Ere the night fell:--with morrow's dawn the Boy Began his journey, and, when he had reached The public way, he put on a bold face; And all the neighbours, as he passed their doors, Came forth with wishes and with farewell prayers, That followed him till he was out of sight. A good report did from their Kinsman come, Of Luke and his well-doing; and the Boy Wrote loving letters, full of wondrous news, Which, as the Housewife phrased it, were throughout "The prettiest letters that were ever seen." Both parents read them with rejoicing hearts. So, many months passed on: and once again The Shepherd went about his daily work With confident and cheerful thoughts; and now Sometimes when he could find a leisure hour He to that valley took his way, and there Wrought at the Sheep-fold. Meantime Luke began To slacken in his duty; and, at length, He in the dissolute city gave himself To evil courses: ignominy and shame Fell on him, so that he was driven at last To seek a hiding-place beyond the seas.
Wordsworth elaborates on how the youngster who walks with the kindness of his parents and neighbors turns the wrong path to bring disgrace upon him. At first, he appears to work hard, building a solid reputation for himself that pleases the elderly couple. But as time goes on, he is ensnared in the sinister grip of city life and driven out by shame.
There is a comfort in the strength of love; 'Twill make a thing endurable, which else Would overset the brain, or break the heart: I have conversed with more than one who well Remember the old Man, and what he was Years after he had heard this heavy news. His bodily frame had been from youth to age Of an unusual strength. Among the rocks He went, and still looked up to sun and cloud, And listened to the wind; and, as before, Performed all kinds of labour for his sheep, And for the land, his small inheritance. And to that hollow dell from time to time Did he repair, to build the Fold of which His flock had need. 'Tis not forgotten yet The pity which was then in every heart For the old Man--and 'tis believed by all That many and many a day he thither went, And never lifted up a single stone. There, by the Sheep-fold, sometimes was he seen Sitting alone, or with his faithful Dog, Then old, beside him, lying at his feet. The length of full seven years, from time to time, He at the building of this Sheep-fold wrought, And left the work unfinished when he died. Three years, or little more, did Isabel Survive her Husband: at her death the estate Was sold, and went into a stranger's hand. The Cottage which was named The Evening Star Is gone--the ploughshare has been through the ground On which it stood; great changes have been wrought In all the neighbourhood:--yet the oak is left That grew beside their door; and the remains Of the unfinished Sheep-fold may be seen Beside the boisterous brook of Green-head Ghyll.
In these final lines, the poet describes how Michael’s parents, in particular, learn of their son’s erratic existence. The elderly man joyfully continued working after delivering the news with exceptional power and compassion. He continued to construct the sheepfold despite his dismay until he was unable to continue. Even yet, seven years later, he consistently seems to have been spotted walking his dog about the sheepfold. With his son, who used to be his helpmate and comrade, he passes away alone. Isabel passes away three more times, leaving the farm in the care of a stranger. There is currently little left in the area where they formerly resided except for the partially completed sheepfold, which serves as a witness to Michael’s tale.