# Logical Reasoning UGC NET Previous Year Question Paper & MCQ

Find the next letter for the series MPSV..…

(A) X
(B) Y
(C) Z
(D) A

Assertion (A): The coin when flipped next time will come up tails.
Reason (R): Because the coin was flipped five times in a row, and each time it came up heads.

Choose the correct answer from below:

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are false, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is doubtful, (R) is true, and (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(D) (A) is doubtful, (R) is false, and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

If HOBBY is coded as IOBY and LOBBY is coded as MOBY; then BOBBY is coded as

(A) BOBY
(B) COBY
(C) DOBY
(D) OOBY

If A = 5, B = 6, C = 7, D = 8 and so on, what do the following numbers stand for? 17, 19, 20, 9, 8

(A) Plane
(B) Moped
(C) Motor
(D) Tonga

If a rectangle were called a circle, a circle a point, a point a triangle and a triangle a square, the shape of a wheel is

(A) Rectangle
(B) Circle
(C) Point
(D) Triangle

If the statement ‘some men are cruel’ is false, which of the following statements/statement are/is true?

(i) All men are cruel.
(ii) No men are cruel.
(iii) Some men are not cruel.

(A) (i) and (iii)
(B) (i) and (ii)
(C) (ii) and (iii)
(D) (iii) only

If MOHAN is represented by the code KMFYL, then COUNT will be represented by

(A) AMSLR
(B) MSLAR
(C) MASRL
(D) SAMLR

Consider the Assertion–I and Assertion–II and select the right code given below :

Assertion–I : Even Bank-lockers are not safe. Thieves can break them and take away your wealth. But thieves cannot go to heaven. So you should keep your wealth in heaven. Assertion–II : The difference of skin colour of beings is because of the distance from the sun and not because of some permanent traits. Skin-colour is the result of body’s reaction to the sun and its rays. Codes:

(A) Both the assertions-I and II are forms of argument.
(B) The assertion-I is an argument but the assertion-II is not.
(C) The assertion-II is an argument but the assertion-I is not.
(D) Both the assertions are explanations of facts.

By which of the following proposition, the proposition ‘some men are not honest’ is contradicted?

(A) All men are honest.
(B) Some men are honest.
(C) No men are honest.
(D) All of the above.

A stipulative definition is

(A) always true
(B) always false
(C) sometimes true sometimes false
(D) neither true nor false

Choose the appropriate alternative given in the codes to replace the question mark. Examiner – Examinee, Pleader – Client, Preceptor – ?

(A) Customer
(B) Path-finder
(C) Perceiver
(D) Disciple

If the statement ‘most of the students are obedient’ is taken to be true, which one of the following pair of statements can be claimed to be true?

I. All obedient persons are students.
II. All students are obedient.
III. Some students are obedient.
IV. Some students are not disobedient. Codes :

(A) I & II
(B) II & III
(C) III & IV
(D) II & IV

Choose the right code: A deductive argument claims that:

I. The conclusion does not claim something more than that which is contained in the premises.
II. The conclusion is supported by the premise/premises conclusively.
III. If the conclusion is false, then premise/premises may be either true or false.
IV. If premise/combination of premises is true, then conclusion must be true. Codes :

(A) I and II
(B) I and III
(C) II and III
(D) All the above

Find the next letter for the series YVSP ………

(A) N
(B) M
(C) O
(D) L

Given that in a code language, ‘645’ means ‘day is warm’; ‘42’ means ‘warm spring’ and ‘634’ means ‘spring is sunny’; which digit represents ‘sunny’ ?

(A) 3
(B) 2
(C) 4
(D) 5

If the proposition “All men are not mortal” is true then which of the following inferences is correct ? Choose from the code given below :

1. “All men are mortal” is true.
2. “Some men are mortal” is false.
3. “No men are mortal” is doubtful.
4. “All men are mortal” is false. Code :

(A) 1, 2 and 3
(B) 2, 3 and 4
(C) 1, 3 and 4
(D) 1 and 3

Determine the nature of the following definition : “Abortion” means the ruthless murdering of innocent beings.

(A) Lexical
(B) Persuasive
(C) Stipulative
(D) Theoretical

Which one of the following is not an argument?

(A) Devadutt does not eat in the day so he must be eating at night.
(B) If Devadutt is growing fat and if he does not eat during the day, he will be eating at night.
(C) Devadutt eats in the night so he does not eat during the day.
(D) Since Devadutt does not eat in the day, he must be eating in the night.

Venn diagram is a kind of diagram to

(A) represent and assess the validity of elementary inferences of syllogistic form.
(B) represent but not assess the validity of elementary inferences of syllogistic form.
(C) represent and assess the truth of elementary inferences of syllogistic form.
(D) assess but not represent the truth of elementary inferences of syllogistic form.

(A) certainty
(B) definite conclusion
(C) predictive conjecture
(D) surety

Which of the following statements are false ? Choose from the code given below :

1. Inductive arguments always proceed from the particular to the general.
2. A cogent argument must be inductively strong.
3. A valid argument may have a false premise and a false conclusion.
4. An argument may legitimately be spoken of as ‘true’ or ‘false’. Code :

(A) 2, 3 and 4
(B) 1 and 3
(C) 2 and 4
(D) 1 and 2

Six persons A, B, C, D, E and F are standing in a circle. B is between F and C, A is between E and D, F is to the left of D. Who is between A and F?

(A) B
(B) C
(C) D
(D) E

If two propositions having the same subject and predicate terms are such that one is the denial of the other, the relationship between them is called

(B) Contrary
(C) Sub-contrary
(D) Sub-alternation

Ananya and Krishna can speak and follow English. Bulbul can write and speak Hindi as Archana does. Archana talks with Ananya also in Bengali. Krishna can not follow Bengali. Bulbul talks with Ananya in Hindi. Who can speak and follow English, Hindi and Bengali ?

(A) Archana
(B) Bulbul
(C) Ananya
(D) Krishna

A man pointing to a lady said, “The son of her only brother is the brother of my wife”. The lady is related to the man as

(A) Mother’s sister
(B) Grand mother
(C) Mother-in-law
(D) Sister of Father-in-law

When the conclusion of an argument follows from its premise/premises conclusively, the argument is called

(A) Circular argument
(B) Inductive argument
(C) Deductive argument
(D) Analogical argument

In certain code TEACHER is written as VGCEJGT. The code of CHILDREN will be

(A) EKNJFTGP
(B) EJKNFTGP
(C) KNJFGTP
(D) None of these

A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting around a round table. A is between E and F. E is opposite to D and C is not in either of the neighbouring seats of E. The person opposite to B is

(A) C
(B) D
(C) A
(D) F

In certain code HEALTH is written as KHDOWK. The code of NORTH will be

(A) QRUWK
(B) RQWUK
(C) RWQUK
(D) RWUKQ

Yadav, Arjun, Rajesh and Kamal play cricket. Rajesh and Kamal play tennis but do not play football. Yadav does not play Badminton but play golf. Arjun does not play tennis. Kamal sometimes plays Badminton. Who does play only cricket ?

(B) Arjun
(C) Rajesh
(D) Kamal

A deductive argument can not be valid :

(A) If its premise / premises is/are true and its conclusion is true.
(B) If its premise / premises is /are true and its conclusion is false.
(C) If its premise / premises is/are false and its conclusion is false.
(D) If its premise / premises is / are false and its conclusion is true.

An analogical argument is strengthened by

(A) making the claim bolder while its premises remain unchanged.
(B) reducing the claim made on the basis of the premises affirmed.
(C) remaining the claim unchanged while the evidence in its support is found to exhibit greater frailty.
(D) None of the above.

If two propositions cannot both be false but may both be true, what is the relation between the two propositions ?

(A) Contrary
(B) Sub-contrary
(C) Sub-alternation

Given below are some codes of arrangements of three items in order of wider scope. Select the correct code.

(A) Garments, cloth and shirts
(B) Cloth, garments and shirts
(C) Shirts, garments and cloth
(D) Garments, shirts and cloth

What is equivalent of the statement ‘All atheists are pessimists’ ?

(A) All non-pessimists are nonatheists.
(B) All non-atheists are nonpessimists.
(C) All pessimists are atheists.
(D) None of the above.

In a certain code GALIB is represented by HBMJC. TIGER will be represented by

(A) UJHFS
(B) UHJSF
(C) JHUSF
(D) HUJSF

If the statement ‘some men are honest’ is false, which among the following statements will be true Choose the correct code given below:

(i) All men are honest
(ii) No men are honest
(iii) Some men are not honest
(iv) All men are dishonest

Codes:
(A) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(B) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(C) (i), (iii) and (iv)
(D) (ii), (i) and (iv)

Choose the proper alternative given in the codes to replace the question mark. Bee-Honey, Cow-Milk, Teacher-?

(A) Intelligence
(B) Marks
(C) Lessons
(D) Wisdom

P is the father of R and S is the son of Q and T is the brother of P. If R is the sister of S, how is Q related to T?

(A) Wife
(B) Sister-in-law
(C) Brother-in-law
(D) Daughter-in-law

A definition put forward to resolve a dispute by influencing attitudes or stirring emotions is called

(A) Lexical
(B) Persuasive
(C) Stipulative
(D) Precisions

Which of the codes given below contains only the correct statements? Statements:

(i) Venn diagram is a clear method of notation
(ii) Venn diagram is the most direct method of testing the validity of categorical syllogisms (iii) In Venn diagram method the premises and the conclusion of a categorical syllogism is diagrammed.
(iv) In Venn diagram method the three overlapping circles are drawn for testing a categorical syllogism

Codes:
(A) (i) (ii) & (iii)
(B) (i) (ii) & (iv)
(C) (ii) (iii) & (iv)
(D) (i) (iii) & (iv)

Inductive reasoning presupposes

(A) unity in human nature
(B) integrity in human nature
(C) uniformity in human nature
(D) harmony in human nature

The next term in the series: AB, ED, IH, NM, — is

(A) TS
(B) ST
(C) TU
(D) SU

If STREAMERS is coded as UVTGALDQR, then KNOWLEDGE will be coded as

(A) MQPYLCDFD
(B) MPQYLDCFD
(C) PMYQLDFCD
(D) YMQPLDDFC

A is brother of B. B is the brother of C. C is the husband of D. E is the father of A. D is related to E as

(A) Daughter
(B) Daughter-in-law
(C) Sister-in-law
(D) Sister

Warrior is related to sword, carpenter is related to saw, farmer is related to plough. In the same way, the author is related to

(A) Book
(B) Fame
(D) Pen

By which of the following proposition, the proposition “wise men are hardly afraid of death” is contradicted?

(A) Some wise men are afraid of death.
(B) All wise men are afraid of death.
(C) No wise men is afraid of death.
(D) Some wise men are not afraid of death.

When in a group of propositions, one proposition is claimed to follow from the others, that group of propositions is called

(A) An argument
(B) A valid argument
(C) An explanation
(D) An invalid argument

Namita and Samita are brilliant and studious. Anita and karabi are obedient and irregular. Babita andNamita are irregular but brilliant. Samita and Kabita are regular and obedient. Who among them is/are brilliant, obedient, regular and studious?

(A) Samita alone
(B) Namita and Samita
(C) Kabita alone
(D) Anita alone

“lf a large diamond is cut up into little bits, it will lose its value just as an army is divided up into small units of soldiers, it loses its strength.” The argument put above may be called as

(A) Analogical
(B) Deductive
(C) Statistical
(D) Casual

Given below are some characteristics of logical argument. Select the code which expresses a characteristic which is not of inductive in character.

(A) The conclusion is claimed to follow from its premises.
(B) The conclusion is based on causal relation.
(C) The conclusion conclusively follows from its premises.
(D) The conclusion is based on observation and experiment

If two propositions having the same subject and predicate terms can both be true but cannot both be false, the relation between those two propositions is called

(B) contrary
(C) subcontrary
(D) subaltern

One writes all numbers from 50 to 99 without the digits 2 and 7. How many numbers have been written?

(A) 32
(B) 36
(C) 40
(D) 38

Given below are two premises and four conclusions drawn from those premises. Select the code that expresses conclusion drawn validly from the premises (separately or jointly). Premises:

(a) All dogs are mammals.
(b) No cats are dogs.
Conclusions:
(i) No cats are mammals
(ii) Some cats are mammals.
(iii) No Dogs are cats
(iv) No dogs are non-mammals.

Codes:
(A) (i) only
(B) (i) and (ii)
(C) (iii) and (iv)
(D) (ii) and (iii)

In certain coding method, the word QUESTION is encoded as DOMESTIC. In this coding, what is the code word for the word RESPONSE?

(A) OMESUCEM
(B) OMESICSM
(C) OMESICEM
(D) OMESISCM

Complete the series BB, FE, II, ML, PP,………. by choosing one of the following option given :

(A) TS
(B) ST
(C) RS
(D) SR

A party was held in which a grandmother, father, mother, four sons, their wives and one son and two daughters to each of the sons were present. The number of females present in the party is:

(A) 12
(B) 14
(C) 18
(D) 24

P and Q are brothers. R and S are sisters. The son of P is brother of S. Q is related to R as:

(A) Son
(B) Brother
(C) Uncle
(D) Father

Consider the argument given below: ‘Pre – employment testing of teachers is quite fair because doctors, architects and engineers who are now employed had to face such a testing.’ What type of argument it is?

(A) Deductive
(B) Analogical
(C) Psychological
(D) Biological

Among the following propositions two arc related in such a way that they can both be true although they cannot both be false. Which are those propositions? Select the correct code. Propositions:

(a) Some priests are cunning.
(b) No priest is cunning.
(c) All priests are cunning.
(d) Some priests are not cunning.

Codes:
(A) (a) and (b)
(B) (c) and (d)
(C) (a) and (c)
(D) (a) and (d)

A Cluster of propositions with a structure that exhibits some inference is called

(A) An inference
(B) An argument
(C) An explanation
(D) A valid argument

Consider the following assertion (A) and reason (R) and select the correct code given below: (A) : No man is perfect. (R): Some men are not perfect.

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) does not provide sufficient reason for (A).
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) provides sufficient reason for (A).
(C) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false but (R) is true.

A definition that has a meaning that is deliberately assigned to some symbol is called:

(A) Lexical
(B) Precising
(C) Stipulative
(D) Persuasive

If the proposition ‘No men are honest’ is taken to be false which of the following proposition/propositions can be claimed certainly to be true? Propositions:

(A) All men are honest
(B) Some men are honest
(C) Some men are not honest
(D) No honest person is man

Among the following statements two are contradictory to each other. Select the correct code that represents them:

Statements:
(a) All poets are philosophers.
(b) Some poets are philosophers.
(c) Some poets are not philosophers.
(d) No philosopher is a poet.

Codes:
(A) (b) and (c)
(B) (a) and (b)
(C) (a) and (d)
(D) (a) and (c)

Which of the codes given below contains only the correct statements? Select the code:

Statements:
(a) Venn diagram represents the arguments graphically.
(b) Venn diagram can enhance our understanding.
(c) Venn diagram may be called valid or invalid.
(d) Venn diagram is clear method of notation.

Codes:
(A) (a), (c) and (d)
(B) (a), (b) and (c)
(C) (a), (b) and (d)
(D) (b), (c) and (d)

A girl introduced a boy as the son of the daughter of the father of her uncle. The boy is related to the girl as:

(A) Son
(B) Brother
(C) Uncle
(D) Nephew

In certain code MATHURA is coded as JXQEROX. The code of HOTELS will be:

(A) ELIPQB
(B) LEQIBP
(C) ELQBIP
(D) LEBIQP

In a particular code, HOSPITALS is coded as HSOLSAPTI. The code of BIOLOGICALS will be

(A) BLICOALIOSG
(B) BOLGICAILOS
(C) SBLAOILOBCG
(D) BSILOALCOIG

In the series AYD, BVF, DRH, GMJ, ? the next term is

(A) GLK
(B) HLM
(C) LHM
(D) KGL

C and D are sisters. A and B are brothers. E is son of A and brother of D. B is related to C as

(A) Brother
(B) Son
(C) Uncle
(D) Father-in-law

If two propositions are connected in such a way that they cannot both be false although they may both be true, then their relationship is called

(A) Contrary
(B) Subcontrary
(D) Subalternation

Which one among the following is not a characteristic of a deductive type of argument ?

(A) The conclusion follows from the premise/premises necessarily.
(B) The argument admits degree of complexity.
(C) The argument provides us knowledge about matters of fact.
(D) The argument must be either valid or invalid.

Select the code which states the condition of an invalid deductive argument :

(A) All the premises are true but the conclusion is false.
(B) Some of the premises are true but the conclusion is false.
(C) All the premises are false and the conclusion is also false.
(D) All the premises are true and the conclusion is also true.

Given below are two premises, with four conclusions drawn from them (taking singly or together); which conclusions are validly drawn ? Select the correct answer from the codes given below : Premises :

(i) All bats are mammals.
(ii) Birds are not bats.
Conclusions :
(a) Birds are not mammals.
(b) Bats are not birds.
(c) All mammals are bats.
(d) Some mammals are bats.

Codes :
(A) (a), (b) and (d)
(B) (b) and (d)
(C) (a) and (c)
(D) (b), (c) and (d)

In the series AB, EDC, FGHI, ……?……, OPQRST, the missing term is

(A) JKLMN
(B) JMKNL
(C) NMLKJ
(D) NMKLJ

Among the following propositions two are related in such a way that one is the denial of the other. Which are those propositions? Select the correct code: Propositions:

(a) All women are equal to men
(b) Some women are equal to men
(c) Some women are not equal to men
(d) No women are equal to men

Codes:
(A) (a) and (b)
(B) (a) and (d)
(C) (c) and (d)
(D) (a) and (c)

In certain code, SELECTION is coded as QCJCARGML. The code of AMERICANS will be

(A) YKCPGAYLQ
(B) BNFSJDBMR
(C) QLYAGPCKY
(D) YQKLCYPAG

Select the code, which is not correct in the context of deductive argument with two premises:

(A) An argument with one true premise, one false premise and a false conclusion may be valid.
(B) An argument with two true premises and a false conclusion may be valid.
(C) An argument with one true premise, one false premise and a true conclusion may be valid.
(D) An argument with two false premises and a false conclusion may be valid.

Given below two premise and four conclusions are drawn from them (taking singly or together). Select the code that states the conclusions validly drawn. Premises:

(i) All religious persons are emotional.
(ii) Ram is a religious person.
Conclusions:
(a) Ram is emotional.
(b) All emotional persons are religious.
(c) Ram is not a non-religious person.
(d) Some religious persons are not emotional.

Codes:
(A) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(B) (a) only
(C) (a) and (c) only
(D) (b) and (c) only

If the proposition ‘All thieves are poor’ is false, which of the following propositions can be claimed certainly to be true? Propositions:

(A) Some thieves are poor.
(B) Some thieves are not poor.
(C) No thief is poor.
(D) No poor person is a thief.

Select the code, which is not correct about Venn diagram:

(A) Venn diagram represents propositions as well as classes.
(B) It can provide clear method of notation.
(C) It can be either valid or invalid.
(D) It can provide the direct method of testing the validity.

Given below are two premises (a and b). From those two premises four conclusions (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) are drawn. Select the code that states the conclusion/conclusions drawn validly (taking the premises singularly or jointly). Premises:

(a) All bats are mammals.
(b) No birds are bats.
Conclusions:
(i) No birds are mammals
(ii) Some birds are not mammals
(iii) No bats are birds
(iv) All mammals are bats.

Code:
(1) (iii) and (iv) only
(2) (i) only
(3) (i) and (ii) only
(4) (iii) only

A deductive argument is invalid if:

(1) Its premises are all true but its cowl on is false.
(2) Its premises and conclusion are all true.
(3) Its premises and conclusion are all false.
(4) Its premises are all false but its conclusion is true.

In certain code, “COVALENT” is coded as BWPDUOFM. The code of “ELEPHANT” will be:

(1) EPHNTEAS
(2) MFUIQRTW
(4) QFMFUOBI

Ajay is a friend of Rakesh. Pointing to an old man Ajay asked Rakesh who is he? Rakesh said “His son is my son’s uncle”. The old man is related to Rakesh as:

(1) Uncle
(2) Grandfather
(3) Father-in-law
(4) Father

Just as melting ice-cubes do not cause a glass of water to overflow, melting sea-ice does not increase oceanic volume. What type of argument is it?

(1) Statistical
(2) Analogical
(3) Hypothetical
(4) Psychological

The next term in the series ABD, DGK, HMS, MTB, …………. is:

(1) RUH
(2) NSA
(3) SBL
(4) PSK

It is Truism to say that no one was there when life first appeared on earth. Any assertion about life’s origin, thus, should be treated as a theory. The above two statements constitute:

(1) A conjecture
(2) A historical explanation
(3) A narrative
(4) An argument

Given below are four statements. Among them two are related in such a way that they can both be true but they cannot both be false. Select the code that indicates those two statements: Statements:

(a) Honest people never suffer.
(b) Almost all honest people do suffer.
(c) Honest people hardly suffer
(d) Each and every honest person suffers.

Code:
(1) (b) and (c)
(2) (a) and (b)
(3) (a) and (c)
(4) (a) and (d)

If A is coded as C, M as I, N as P, S as O, I as A, P as N, E as M, O as E and C as S, then the code of COMPANIES will be

(1) SPEINMOAC
(2) NCPSEIOMA
(3) SMOPIEACN
(4) SEINCPAMO

Among the following, identify the continuous type of data:

(1) Number of languages a person speaks
(2) Number of children in a household
(3) Population of cities
(4) Weight of students in a class

Out of four cities given below three are alike in some manner, while the fourth one is different. Identify the odd one

(1) Lucknow
(2) Rishikesh
(4) Patna

Given below are some characteristics of reasoning. Select the code that states a characteristic which is not of deductive reasoning:

(1) The conclusion must be based on observation and experiment
(2) The conclusion should be supported by the premise/premises
(3) The conclusion must follow from the premise/premises necessarily
(4) The argument may be valid or invalid

The next term in the following series YEB,WFD,UHG,SKI,..?.. will be

(1) TLO
(2) QOL
(3) QLO
(4) GQP

Among the following propositions two are related in such a way that they cannot both be true but can both be false. Select the code that states those two propositions.

Propositions:
(a) Every student is attentive
(b) Some students are attentive
(c) Students are never attentive
(d) Some students are not attentive

Codes:
(1) (a) and (b)
(2) (a) and (c)
(3) (b) and (c)
(4) (c) and (d)

Given below are two premises (a) and (b) . From those to premises four conclusions (i), (ii), (iii) & (iv) are drawn. Select the code that states the conclusions validly drawn from the premises (taking singly or jointly.)

Premises:
(a) Untouchability is a curse.
(b) All hot pans are untouchable.
Conclusions:
(i) All hot pans are curse.
(ii) Some untouchable things are hot pans.
(iii) All curses are untouchability.
(iv) Some curses are untouchability.

Codes:
(1) (i) and (ii)
(2) (ii) and (iii)
(3) (iii) and (iv)
(4) (ii) and (iv)

If the statement ‘None but the brave wins the race’ is false which of the following statements can be claimed to be true? Select the correct code:

(1) All brave persons win the race.
(2) Some persons who win the race are not brave.
(3) Some persons who win the race are brave.
(4) No person who wins the race is brave.

If two standard from categorical propositions with the same subject and predicate are related in such a manner that if one is undetermined the other must be undetermined, what is their relation?

(1) Contrary
(2) Subcontrary
(4) Subaltern

Men and woman may have different reproductive strategies but neither can be considered inferior or superior to the other, any more than a bird’s wings can be considered superior or inferior to a fish’s fins. What type of argument it is?

(1) Biological
(2) Psychological
(3) Analogical
(4) Hypothetical

The next term in the series: ABD, DGK, HMS, MTB, SBL, ________, … is:

(1) ZKU
(2) ZCA
(3) ZKW
(4) ZKU

If VARANASI is coded as WCUESGZQ, then the code of KOLKATA will be:

(1) LOQOZEH
(2) HLZEOOQ
(3) ZELHOQO
(4) LQOOFZH

Introducing, Rakesh to her husband a women said, “His brother’s father is the only son of my grandfather”. The woman is related to Rakesh as:

(1) Aunt
(2) Mother
(3) Sister
(4) Daughter

Superiority of intellect depends upon its power of concentration on one theme in the same way as a concave mirror collects all the rays that strike upon it into one point.

(1) Mathematical
(2) Psychological
(3) Analogical
(4) Deductive

Given below are two premises (A and B). Four conclusions are drawn from them. Select the code that states validity drawn conclusion (s) (taking the premises individually or jointly).

Premises:
(A) Most of the dancers are physically fit.
(B) Most of the singers are dancers.
Conclusions:
(a) Most of the singers are physically fit.
(b) Most of the dancers are singers.
(c) Most of the physically fit persons are dancers.
(d) Most of the physically fit persons are singers.

Code:
(1) (a) and (b)
(2) (b) and (c)
(3) (c) and (d)
(4) (d) and (a)

Which one among the following is a presupposition in inductive reasoning?

(1) Law of identity
(2) Unchangeability in nature
(3) Harmony in nature
(4) Uniformity of nature

If the proposition ‘domestic animals are hardly ferocious’ is taken to be false, which of the following proposition/propositions can be claimed to be certainly true? Select the correct code: Propositions:

(a) All domestic animals are ferocious.
(b) Most of the domestic animals are ferocious.
(c) No domestic animal is ferocious.
(d) Some domestic animals are non-ferocious.

Code: (1) (a) and (b)
(2) (a) only
(3) (c) and (d)
(4) (b) only

Which one of the following statements is not correct in the context of Venn diagram method?

(1) It is a method of testing the validity of arguments.
(2) It represents both the premises of a syllogism in one diagram.
(3) It requires two overlapping circles for the two premises of a standard-form categorical syllogism.
(4) It can be used to represent classes as well as propositions.

Under which of the conditions an argument may be valid ? select the correct answer from the code given below :

Statements:
(a) when its conclusion and premises are true
(b) Even when its conclusion and one or more of its premises are false
(c) Only when its conclusion is true

1. (c) alone
2. (a) and (b)
3. (a) and (c)
4. (a) alone

Jenifer’s father-in-law is my brother. Helen is a grand-daughter of my mother. How is Helen related to Jenifer?

1. Daughter-in-law
2. Sister
3. Sister-in-law
4. Mother

Truth and falsity are attributes of:

1. Debates
2. Propositions
3. Opinions
4. Arguments

Among the following, there are two statements which can’t be true together, but can be false together. Select the code that represents them. Statements :

(a) All poets are dreamers.
(b) No poets are dreamers.
(c) Some poets are dreamers.
(d) Some poets are not dreamers.

1. (a) and (b)
2. (b) and (d)
3. (a) and (d)
4. (c) and (d)

Given below are two premises (a) and (b). Four conclusions are drawn from them. Select the code that states validly drawn conclusion(s). [Taking the premises individually or jointly] Premises :

(a) all judges are lawyers.
(b) no doctors are lawyers.
Conclusions :
(1) no lawyers are doctors.
(2) no doctor are judges.
(3) all lawyers are judges.
(4) some doctor are judges

1. (1) and (3)
2. (1) and (2)
3. (1) and (4)
4. (2) and (3)

If ABODE is coded as ADRHJ, then the code for AGRO will be :

1. AIVX
2. AIUS
3. AIST
4. AVCD

Choose the word which is different from the rest:

1. Mount Kilimanjaro
2. Shivalik Hills
3. Aravali Hills
4. Nilgiri Hills

Which one of the following can be validly inferred from the proposition – “all animals are wild” ?

1. No non-animals are wild.
2. Some animals are not wild.
3. No animals are wild.
4. Some animals are wild.

The next term in the letter series DEF, HIJ, LMN, PQR, TUV, ______ IS :

1. XYZ
2. WYZ
3. WXY
4. YZA

When subject and predicate of both the premises are the same but they differ in quality only, it is known as

(2) Contraries
(3) Subaltern
(4) Super altern

If proposition ‘All republics are grateful’ is taken to be true then which of the following propositions can be false?

(i) Republics are not grateful
(ii) Some republics are not grateful
(iii) No republics are grateful
(iv) Some republics are grateful

Select the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (i) only
(2) (ii) only
(3) (i). (ii) and (iii)
(4) (ii) and (iii)

The proposition ‘No red is black is equivalent to which of the following propositions?

(i) No black is red
(ii) All red are black
(iii) Some red are not black
(iv) Red is not black

Select the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (i), (ii). (iii) and (iv)
(2) (iii) only
(3) (1) and (iv)
(4) (iv) only

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them. Which of the following conclusions could be validly drawn from the premises? Premises:

(i) Some bags are tables
(1i) All bags are chairs.
Conclusions:
(a) Some tables are chairs
(b) No chair is table
(c) Some chairs are bags
(d) Some bags are not tables

Select the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (a) and (c)
(2) (b), (c) and (d)
(3) (a) and (d)
(4) (b) only

Identify the reasoning in the following argument: Pre-active stage of classroom teaching is important just as pre-learning preparation stage of communication’

(1) Hypothetical
(2) Deductive
(3) Inductive
(4) Analogical

If REASON is coded as 5 and GOVERNMENT as 9, than what is the code for ACCIDENT?

(1) 6
(2) 7
(3) 8
(4) 9

“In this hospital, some nurses don’t wear white dress, some doctors have private practice and medicines prescribed are of high cost. Therefore, treatment in this hospital is of poor quality”. What fallacy does this argument make?

1. Fallacy of composition
2. Slippery slope
3. Fallacy of accident
4. Fallacy of division

Which of the following is true with reference to anupalabdhi as a means of knowledge?

1. 1 do not cognize the pot on the table, therefore it is absent there
2. 1 directly perceive the absence of pot on the table
3. 1 infer the absence of pot on the table since 1 do not find it to be there
4. 1 know the absence of the pot on the table because 1 know its similarly with other

Which one of the following is the characteristic feature of an argument?

1. It is either valid or invalid
2. It is neither valid nor invalid
3. It is either true or false
4. It is neither true nor false

Which of the following is an example of maximum performance test?

1. Projective personality test
2. Interest inventory
3. Aptitude test
4. Attitude scales

Consider the following statements and choose the right option

1. Middle term should be distributed in atleast one premise
2. Middle term should be present in the conclusion
3. Both premises can be particular in a valid argument
4. Both premises can be negative in a valid argument

1. (c) and (d)
2. Only (c)
3. Only (a)
4. (b) and (c)

“If it rains, then the drought will end. The drought has ended. Therefore, it rained”. Which kind of fallacy does this commit?

1. Deductive fallacy
2. Inductive fallacy
3. Abductive fallacy
4. Informal fallacy

A, B, C, D, E and F are standing in a circle and looking at the centre. Only D is between A and B. Only F is between A and C. E is just left of B. Who is the only one standing between E and F?

1. A
2. B
3. D
4. C

Given below are two statements Statement I: Sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 Statement II: The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below

1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is false
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is false

All things which have smoke have fire; This hill has smoke; Therefore, the hill has smoke; and No non-fiery things have smoke; This hill has smoke; Therefore, this hill is not non-fiery The above is an example of which type of inference in Indian logic?

1. Purvavat
2. Anvayavyatireki
3. Kevalanayi
4. Kevalavyatireki

Match List I and List II Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

1. A – III, B – IV, C – II, D – I
2. A – IV, B – II, C – III, D – I
3. A – II, B – IV, C – I, D – III
4. A – IV, B – III, C – II, D – I

Asidha is a fallacy when the middle term is

1. Unproved
2. Too wide
3. Too narrow
4. Non-exclusive

January 1, 1995 was a Sunday. What day of the week lies on January 1, 1996 ?

(A) Sunday
(B) Monday
(C) Wednesday
(D) Saturday

What will be the next term in the following ? DCXW, FEVU, HGTS, ?

(A) AKPO
(B) ABYZ
(C) JIRQ
(D) LMRS

Three individuals X, Y, Z hired a car on a sharing basis and paid Rs. 1,040. They used it for 7, 8, 11 hours, respectively. What are the charges paid by Y ?

(A) Rs. 290
(B) Rs. 320
(C) Rs. 360
(D) Rs. 440

Inductive reasoning is based on or presupposes

(A) uniformity of nature
(B) God created the world
(C) unity of nature
(D) laws of nature

To be critical, thinking must be

(A) practical
(B) socially relevant
(C) individually satisfying
(D) analytical

Which of the following is an analogous statement ?

(A) Man is like God
(B) God is great
(C) Gandhiji is the Father of the Nation
(D) Man is a rational being.

On January 12, 1980, it was a Saturday. The day of the week on January 12, 1979 was

(A) Thursday
(B) Friday
(C) Saturday
(D) Sunday

If water is called food, food is called tree, tree is called earth, earth is called world, which of the following grows a fruit ?

(A) Water
(B) Tree
(C) World
(D) Earth

E is the son of A, D is the son of B, E is married to C, C is the daughter of B. How is D related to E ?

(A) Brother
(B) Uncle
(C) Father-in-law
(D) Brother-in-law

If INSURANCE is coded as ECNARUSNI, how HINDRANCE will be coded ?

(B) HANODEINR
(C) AENIRHDCN
(D) ECNARDNIH

Which of the following is an example of circular argument ?

(A) God created man in his image and man created God in his own image.
(B) God is the source of a scripture and the scripture is the source of our knowledge of God.
(C) Some of the Indians are great because India is great.
(D) Rama is great because he is Rama.

Lakshmana is a morally good person because

(A) he is religious
(B) he is educated
(C) he is rich
(D) he is rational

Two statements I and II given below are followed by two conclusions (a) and (b). Supposing the statements are true, which of the following conclusions can logically follow ? I. Some religious people are morally good. II. Some religious people are rational.

Conclusions :
(a) Rationally religious people are good morally.
(b) Non-rational religious persons are not morally good.

(A) Only (a) follows.
(B) Only (b) follows.
(C) Both (a) and (b) follow.
(D) Neither (a) nor (b) follows.

Certainty is

(A) an objective fact
(B) emotionally satisfying
(C) logical
(D) ontological

Determine the relationship between the pair of words ALWAYS : NEVER and then select from the following pair of words which have a similar relationship :

(A) often : rarely
(B) frequently : occasionally
(C) constantly : frequently
(D) intermittently : casually

The letters in the first set have certain relationship. On the basis of this relationship, make the right choice for the second set : AF : IK : : LQ : ?

(A) MO
(B) NP
(C) OR
(D) TV

Two statements I and II given below are followed by two conclusions (a) and (b). Supposing the statements are true, which of the following conclusions can logically follow ? Statements : I. Some flowers are red. II. Some flowers are blue.

Conclusions :
(a) Some flowers are neither red nor blue.
(b) Some flowers are both red and blue.

(A) Only (a) follows.
(B) Only (b) follows.
(C) Both (a) and (b) follow.
(D) Neither (a) nor (b) follows.

If the statement ‘all students are intelligent’ is true, which of the following statements are false ?

(i) No students are intelligent.
(ii) Some students are intelligent.
(iii) Some students are not intelligent.

(A) (i) and (ii)
(B) (i) and (iii)
(C) (ii) and (iii)
(D) (i) only

A reasoning where we start with certain particular statements and conclude with a universal statement is called

(A) Deductive Reasoning
(B) Inductive Reasoning
(C) Abnormal Reasoning
(D) Transcendental Reasoning

Mr. A, Miss B, Mr. C and Miss D are sitting around a table and discussing their trades.

(i) Mr. A sits opposite to the cook.
(ii) Miss B sits right to the barber
(iii) The washerman sits right to the barber
(iv) Miss D sits opposite to Mr. C

What are the trades of A and B ?
(A) Tailor and barber
(B) Barber and cook
(C) Tailor and cook
(D) Tailor and washerman

A women introduces a man as the son of the brother of her mother. How is the man related to the woman? Options:-

(A) Son
(B) Grandson
(C) Cousin
(D) Uncle

Among the following propositions (a, b, ¢ and d) two are related in such a way that both of them together cannot be false although they may both be true. Select the code that states those two propositions.

(a) All Books are Pen
(b) Some Books are Pen
(¢) No Books are Pen
(d) Some Books are not Pen

Options:-
(A) (¢) and (d)
(B) (b) and (d)
(C) (b) and (c)
(D) (a) and (b)

Given below is an Assertion “A” and a Reason “R”. Consider them and select the correct code given below: Assertion “A”: Honesty is a great virtue Reason “R” : Honesty does not harm anybody

Options:-
(A) “R” is true, but “A” is false
(B) “A” is true, but “R” is false
(C) Both “A” and “R” are true, but “R” is correct explanation of “A”
(D) Both “A” and “R” are true, but “R” is not correct explanation of “A”

Given below are two premises (i) and (ii). Four conclusions are drawn from them (Taking singly or together). Premises: (i) Some prisoners are dacoits. (ii) Some dacoits are murderers.

Conclusions:
(a) Some prisoners are murderers.
(b) All prisoners are murderers.
(c) Some dacoits are prisoners.
(d) Some murderers are dacoits.

Select the code that states the validity drawn conclusions: Options:-

(A) Only (b) and (c)
(B) Only (c) and (d)
(C) Only (b) and (d)
(D) Only (a) and (d)

‘Every law is an evil, for every law is an infraction of liberty’. The above is: Options:-

(A) A justification of beliefs
(B) An argument
(C) A proposition of facts
(D) An explanation of facts

Jenifer’s father-in-law is my brother. Helen is a grand-daughter of my mother. How is Helen related to Jenifer? Options:-

(A) Daughter-in-law
(B) Mother
(C) Sister-in-law
(D) Sister

Among the following there are two statements which can’t be true together, but can be false together. Select the code that represents them.

Statements:
(a) All poets are dreamers.
(b) No poets are dreamers.
(c) Some poets are dreamers.
(d) Some poets are not dreamers.

Options:-
(A) (b) and (d)
(B) (a) and (d)
(C) (c) and (d)
(D) (a) and (b)

Truth and falsity are attributes of: Options:-

(A) Debates
(B) Arguments
(C) Propositions
(D) Opinions

if ABODE is coded as ADRHI, then the code for AGRO will be: Options:-

(A) AVCD
(B) AIUS
(C) AIST
(D) AIVX

Which one of the following can be validly inferred from the proposition- “All animals are wild”? Options:-

(A) Some animals are not wild.
(B) No non-animals are wild.
(C) Some animals are wild.
(D) No animals are wild.

The next term in the letter series DEF, HIJ, LMN, PQR, TUV, is: Options:-

(A) YZA
(B) WXY
(C)WYZ
(D) XYZ

Under which of the conditions, an argument may be valid? Select the correct answer from the code given below:

Statements:
(a) When its conclusion and premises are true.
(b) Even when its conclusion and one or more of its premises are false.
(c) Only when its conclusion is true.

Options:-
(A) (a) and (b)
(B) (a) alone
(C) (c) alone
(D) (a) and (c)

Given below are two premises (a)and (b). Four conclusions are drawn from them. Select the code that states validly drawn conclusion(s). [taking the premises individually or jointly]Premises:(a) All judges are lawyers.(b) No doctors are lawyers.

Conclusions:
(1) No lawyers are doctors.
(ii) No doctors are judges.
(iii) All lawyers are judges.
(iv) Some doctors are judges.

Options:-
(A) (1) and (iii)
(B) (i) and (iv)
(C) (1) and (ii)
(D) (ii) and (iii)

If FIST is coded as IMWX, and then the code for BOAT will be: Option:-

(A) FSEX
(B) BCFX
(C) CDEX
(D) ESFX

Which of the following statements are correct with regard to the ‘truth and validity” in logically reasoning. Select the correct code from the below:

(a) Truth and falsity are attributes of individual propositions.
(b) Validity and invalidity are attributes of individual propositions.
(c) Truth and falsity are attributes of arguments.
(d) Validity and invalidity are attributes of arguments

Options:-
(A) (a) and (c)
(B) (a) and (d)
(D) (b) and (d)

Among the following which one of the arguments is rooted in empirical investigation? Options:-

(A) Hypothetical
(B) Inductive
(C) Implicative
(D) Deductive

Among the following, there are two statements which can’t be true together, but can be false together. Select the code that represents them: Statements:-

(a) All bats are mammals.
(b) Some bats are mammals.
(c) Some bats are not mammals.
(d) No bats are mammals.

Options:-
(A) (b) and (¢)
(B) (a) and (b)
(D) (a) and (d)

Identify the correct reasoning in the following argument: “An English women lecturing Americans on semicolons is a little like an American lecturing the French on sauces”. Options:-

(A) Hypothetical
(B) Deductive
(C) Analogical
(D) Inductive

Pointing to the photograph of a girl, Sukanya said, “She is the daughter of my mother”. How is Sukanya related to the girl in the photograph? Options:-

(A) Aunt
(B) Sister
(C) Mother
(D) Information incomplete

The next term in the letter series IN, HL, GJ, FH, EF, __ is: Options:-

(A) BC
(B) BD
(C) DD
(D) DE

Given below are two premises (a and b). Four conclusions are drawn from them. Select the code that states validly drawn conclusion(s) [taking premises individually or jointly]. Premises: (a) All mammals are warm-blooded animals. (b) No lizards are warm-blooded animals.

Conclusions:
(i) No lizards are mammals.
(ii) Some lizards are not mammals.
(iii) No warm-blooded animals are lizards.
(iv) All warm-blooded animals are mammals.

Options:-
(A) (i), (ii) and (iii)
(B) (ii) and (iii)
(D) (iii) and (iv)

Match the type of validity with its major source of problem:

LIST 1
(a) Construct validity
(b) External Validity
(c) Internal Validity
LIST 2
(i) Faulty or poor measure, resulting in mislabeling/ misinterpreting behaviour
(ii) Treatment and no-treatment groups were unequal before the study began
(iii) Sample of participants was not representative

Options:-
(A) (a)-(i), (b)-), (o)-(i)
(B) (a)-(i), (b)-i), (c)-(iii
(C) (a)-(0), (b)-(id), (c)-(ii
(D) (a)-(iii), (b)-(), (c)-(i)

Given below are two premises (a) and (b). Four conclusions are drawn from them. Select the code that states validity drawn conclusion (s) [taking the premises individually or jointly]. Premises: (a) All diamonds are precious stones. (b) Some carbon compounds are diamonds.

Conclusions:
(i) All precious stones and diamonds.
(ii) Some non-carbon compounds are precious stones.
(iii) All precious stones are carbon compounds.
(iv) Some carbon compounds are precious stones.

Options:-
(A) (ii) and (iv)
(B) (iv) only
(C) (i) and (iv)
(D) (iii) only

In a valid deductive argument, if the premises are true, then:

Options:-
(A) Conclusion may sometimes be true
(B) Conclusion must be true.
(C) Conclusion must be false.
(D) Conclusion can be probably true.

If HYDERABAD is coded as DABAREDYH, then BENGALURU will be coded as:

Options:-
(A) XYPQRSTUB
(B) UXURULCAB
(C) BDEFGHIJK
(D) URULAGNEB

Identify the reasoning in the following argument: “A person without a goal is like a computer without a program”.

Options:-
(A) Hypothetical
(B) Analogical
(C) Inductive
(D) Deductive

Pointing to a woman, a man said, “Her father is the only son of my father”. How is the man related to the women?

Options:-
(A) Brother of the women
(B) Father-in-law of the woman
(C) Brother-in-law of the woman
(D) Father of the woman

The next term in the letter series EE, GG, IJ, KN, MS, _ Options:-

(A) YO
(B) OY
(C) OO
(D) XY

Choose the word which is different from the rest: Options:-

(A) Write
(B) Learn
(C) Knowledge

Among the following statements two are contradictory to each other. Select the code that represents them:

Statements:
(a) All judges are lawyers.
(b) Some judges are lawyers.
(c) Some judges are not lawyers.
(d) No judges are lawyers.

Options:-
(A) (b) and (d)
(B) (b) and (c)
(C) (a) and (b)
(D) (a) and (d)

Validity in logical reasoning refers to:

(a) Any simple single proposition
(b) Relation between premises and conclusions
(c) The conclusion alone
(d) Truth of the premises

Select the correct code from below: Options:-
(A) (b) alone
(B) (d) alone
(C) (a) and (b)
(D) (b) and (c)

Ram said, “I am the only child of my mother”. Next he pointed to a boy and continued, “This boy is the husband of the grandchild of my mother”. How is Ram related to the boy ?

(A) Father-in-law
(B) Brother-in-law
(C) Father
(D) Grandfather

If DIVE is coded as IMYG, then the code for TAKE will be :

(A) XFMG
(B) XENG
(C) YENG
(D) TFMC

Among the following statements, two are contradictory to each other. Select the code that represents them.

Statements :
(a) All surgeons are doctors.
(b) Some surgeons are doctors.
(c) Some surgeons are not doctors.
(d) No surgeons are doctors.

Code
(A) (b) and (c)
(B) (b) and (d)
(C) (a) and (d)
(D) (a) and (b)

Choose the word which is different from the rest.

(A) Hands
(B) Eyes
(C) Nose
(D) Legs

In which of the following arguments the conclusion can be no more than probable?

(A) Deductive
(B) Analogical
(C) Demonstrative
(D)Implicative

To slow a beast, you break its limbs. To slow a nation, you break its people.” Identify the argument involved in the above

(A) Deductive
(B) Analogical
(C) Inductive
(D)Demonstrative

“The relation that exists between Premises and Conclusion is that of logical necessity” — is a case with which of the following arguments ?

(A) Inductive
(B) Demonstrative
(C) Analogical
(D)Deductive

The next term in the letter series is : ME, KH, IK, GN,

(A) EQ
(B)CK
(C)BD
(D) DF

In which of the following instances, deductive argument is invalid? Options:-

(A) When its premises are true but conclusion is false.
(B) When its premises and conclusion are all true.
(C) When its premises are false and conclusion is true.
(D) When its premises and conclusion are all false.

Ram said to Shyam, “that girl playing with the doll, is the younger of the two daughters of my father’s wife”. How is the girl playing with the doll is related to Ram? Options:-

(A) Cousin
(B) Aunty
(C) Sister-in-law
(D) Sister

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them (taking singly or together). Which of the following conclusions could be validity drawn from the premises? Premises: (1) All cats are animals. (ii) Birds are not cats.

Conclusions:
(a) Birds are not animals.
(b) Cats are not Birds.
(c) All animals are cats.
(d) Some animals are cats.

Select the correct answer from the code given below: Options:-
(A) (a), (b) and (d)
(B) (b), (c) and (d)
(C) (b) and (d)
(D) (a) and (c)

The next term in the letter series DY, JX, OW, SV, VU, is: Options:-

(A) WV
(B) XT
(C) YT
(D) XS

Among the following statements, two are contradictory to each other. Statements:

(a) All men are humans.
(b) Some men are humans.
(c) Some men are not humans.
(d) No men are humans.

Select the code that represents them: Options:-
(A) (a) and (b)
(B) (a) and (c)
(C) (b) and (c)
(D) (a) and (d)

if FACE is coded as HCEG, then the code for HIGH will be: Options:-

(A) BEFB
(B) KHIK
(C) JK1J
(D) ZXYZ

Inductive argument proceeds from: Options:-

(A) Universals to Particulars
(B) Particulars to Particulars
(C) Particulars to Universals
(D) Universals to Universals

Which of these words is different from the rest? Options:-

(A) Huge
(B) Tall
(C) Sharp
(D) Thin

The reasoning which would be helpful in seeking new knowledge of facts about the world is: Options:-

(A) Inductive
(B) Demonstrative
(C) Deductive
(D) Speculative

If DICE is coded as FLGJ, then the code for BITE will be: Options:-

(A) DICL
(B) DKYH
(C) DLXJ
(D) DKVY

The next term in the letter series KB, JH, IM, HQ, GT, is. Options:-

(A) EY
(B) EU
(C) FU
(D) FV

Pointing to a man, Abhijit said “His granddaughter is the only daughter of my brother”. How is the man related to Abhijit? Options:-

(A) Father
(B) Brother-in-law
(C) Uncle
(D) Grandfather

Choose the word which is different from the rest? Options:-

(A) Jute
(B) Plastic
(C) Paper
(D) Wool

Among the following identify two statements which are in such a relation that the truth of one implies the truth of the other, but not conversely. Statements:

(a). All plastics are synthetic.
(b). Some plastics are synthetic.
(c). Some plastics are not synthetic.
(d). No plastics are synthetic. Options:-

(A) (a) and (b)
(B) (b) and (d)
(C) (a) and (d)
(D) (a) and (c)

Identify the argument which involves a leap from the known to the unknown. Options:-

(A) Reductive argument
(B) Analogical argument
(C) Deductive argument
(D) Inductive argument

The argument which claims that its conclusion is supported by its premises conclusively is: Options:-

(A) Deductive argument
(B) Demonstrative argument
(C) Analogical argument
(D) Inductive argument

Two propositions are contradictory when, Options:-

(A) Truth of one proposition rejects the falsity of the other and vice versa.
(B) Truth of one proposition doesn’t guarantee the falsity of the other.
(C) Truth of one proposition supposes the falsity of the other and vice versa.
(D) Truth of one proposition implies falsity of the other and vice versa.

In terms of the relationship indicated below, which word will correctly pair to replace the question mark (?)? Scrub: wash:: Sob :_? Options:

(A) Cry
(C) Tease
(D) Water

Which is an example of a correct deductive argument? Options:-

(A) No one got an ‘A’ grade on yesterday’s test. Jatin wasn’t in school yesterday. Jatin will make up the test today and get an ‘A’ grade.
(B) All human beings are the favor of world peace. Terrorists don’t care about world peace. Terrorists bring about destruction.
(C) You have to be 16 years old to get a driver’s license. Abhi will be 16 years old tomorrow. Therefore, Abhi can now buy a car.
(D) There are 24 CDs on the top shelf of my bookcase and 14 on the lower shelf. There are no other CDs in my bookcase. Therefore there are 38 CDs in my bookcase.

In a certain flight crew, the positions of the pilot, copilot and flight engineer are held by Mr. Ajit, Mr. Bhavesh and Mr. Chirag, though not necessarily in that order. The following statements are true for all the three: 1. The copilot is the only child and earns the least. 2. Chirag is married to Bhavesh’s sister and earns more than the pilot. Who is the copilot? Options:-

(A) Chirag
(B) Either Ajit or Chirag
(C) Ajit
(D) Bhavesh

In a certain code, PLEADING is written as FMHC@QMFB. How is SHOULDER written in that code? Options:-

(A) QDCKTIPV
(B) QDCKVPIT
(C) TIPVQDCK
(D) KCDQTIPV

In conveying, the same meanings, which of the following is incongruous? Options:-

(A) Beautiful
(B) Unique
(C) Rare
(D) Exceptional

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them (taking, singly or together). Which conclusions are validly drawn? Select the correct answer from the code given below. Premises: (i) All lawyers are extroverts. (ii) Some wisemen are extroverts.

Conclusions:
(a) All lawyers are wisemen.
(b) All wisemen are lawyers.
(c) Some extroverts are wisemen.
(d) All extroverts are lawyers.

Options:-
(A) (b) and (c) only
(B) (a) only
(C) (c) only
(D) (a) and (c) only

Ravi and Kunal are good in Hockey and Volleyball. Sachin and Ravi are good in Hockey and Baseball. Gaurav and Kunal are good in Cricket and Volleyball. Sachin, Gaurav and Mandeep are good in Football and Baseball. Who is good in Hockey, Cricket and Volleyball? Options:-

(A) Sachin
(B) Gaurav
(C) Kunal
(D) Ravi

In a certain code, LIFE is written as KMHJEGDEF. How is WORD written in that code? Options:

(A) XVPNSQEC
(B) XVPNSQCE
(C) VXNPQSEC
(D) VXNPQSCE

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them (taken singly or together). Which conclusions are validly drawn? Select the correct answer from the code given below. Premises: (i) All politicians are honest persons. (ii) All honest persons are fair.

Conclusions:
(a) Some honest persons are politicians.
(b) No honest person is politician.
(c) Some fair persons are politicians.
(d) All fair persons are politicians.

Options:
(A) (a) and (c) only
(B) (a), (b) and (d) only
(C) (b) and (c) only
(D) (b) and (d) only

In terms of the relationship indicated below, which word will correctly pair to replace the question mark (?) Play :: ? Sing :: Song Options:

(A) Act
(B) Field
(C) Scene
(D) Theatre

Five Persons Amit, Anil, Ajay, Atul and Anand live in a five storey building on different floors, Amit lives above Ajay but below Anand. Atul lives above Ajay but below Amit. Anil lives below Anand but above Atul. In which floor does Anil live? Options:

(A) Third floor
(B) Fourth floor
(C) Either third floor or fourth floor
(D) Second floor

In conveying the same meanings, which of the following is incongruous?

(A) Prosper
(B) Excite
(C) Flourish
(D) Thrive

Mr. Rajesh, his sister, his son, and his daughter are fond of golf and often play together. The following statements are true for all the four:

(a) The best player is twin and worst player is male.
(b) The best player and the worst player are of the same age.
(c) Rajesh is younger to his sister.

Who is the best player?
(A) Sister of Mr. Rajesh
(B) Son of Mr. Rajesh
(C) Mr. Rajesh
(D) Daughter of Mr. Rajesh

Given below is a statement followed by three assumptions made from it. Which assumptions are implicit in the context of the given statement? Select the correct answer from the code given below.

Statement: ‘Smoking is injurious to health’. — A warning printed on the cigarette packets. Assumptions:
(a) People read printed matter on a cigarette packet.
(b) People make careful note of a warning.
(c) Non-smoking promotes health.

(A) Only (b)
(B) Only (b) and (c)
(C) Only (a) and (b)
(D) Only (a)

A cluster of propositions with a structure that exhibits some inference is called: Options:

(A) An explanation
(B) An argument
(C) An implication
(D) A description

If the proposition ‘No dog is quadruped’ is false which one among the following propositions can be claimed certainly to be true? Options:-

(B) Some dogs are not quadruped.
(D) All dogs are biped

Consider the statements (a), (b), (c) and (d) given below. Which one of the codes contains the correct statements only?

(a) Venn diagram is a clear method of notation.
(b) To diagram a standard form of a categorical proposition, three overlapping circles are drawn.
(c) To test a categorical syllogism, two overlapping circles are drawn.
(d) Venn diagram is a method of testing the validity of categorical syllogisms.

Options:-
(A) (a) and (d) only
(B) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(C) (a) and (b) only
(D) (a), (b) and (c) only

Given below are two premises. Four conclusions are drawn from them (taking singly or together). Select the code that states the validly drawn conclusions. Premises: (i) Some flowers are red. (ii) All roses are flowers.

Conclusions:
(a) Some roses are red.
(b) Some red things are flowers.
(c) Some flowers are roses.
(d) All roses are red.

Options:-
(A) (b) and (c) only
(B) (a), (b) and (c) only
(C) (c) and (d) only
(D) (a) and (b) only

A’s mother is sister of B and daughter of C. D is daughter of B and sister of E. How is C related to BE?

Options:-
(A) Aunt
(B) Grandmother
(C) Sister-in-law
(D) Mother

A deductive argument is invalid if: Options:-

(A) Its premises and conclusions are all false.
(B) Its premises are all true but its conclusion is false.
(C) Its premises are all false but its conclusion is true.
(D) Its premises and conclusions are all true.

Consider the argument provided below: “Sound is impermanent because it is invisible” Identify the fallacy involved in the above argument on the basis of Indian logic.

(A) Fallacy of irrelevant reason
(B) Fallacy of wrong assertion
(C) Fallacy of trivial reason

The reasoning which would be helpful in finding new knowledge of facts about the world is:

(A) Speculative
(B) Inductive
(C) Deductive
(D) Analogical

Identify the minor term in the following syllogism: “Some books are not edifying All books are interesting Therefore, some interesting things are not edifying”

(A) Subject of the conclusion and predicate of the second premises
(B) Predicate of the conclusion and predicate of the first premises
(C) Subject of the both premises
(D) Predicate of the both premises

Consider the example provided below: “This gavaya is like my cow” This is an example of which means of knowledge (pramana)

(A) comparison
(B) implication
(C) perception
(D) inference

The proposition ‘No red is black’ is equivalent to which of the following propositions?

(i) No black is red
(ii) All red are black
(iii) Some red are not black
(iv) Red is not black

Select the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(B) (iii) only
(C) (i) and (iv)
(D) (iv) only

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them. Which of the following conclusions could be validly drawn from the premises? Premises: (i) Some bags are tables (ii) All bags are chairs.

Conclusions:
(a) Some tables are chairs.
(b) No chair is table.
(c) Some chairs are bags.
(d) Some bags are not tables.

Select the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) (a) and (c)
(B) (b), (c) and (d)
(C) (a) and (d)
(D) (b) only

If proposition ‘All republics are grateful’ is taken to be true, then which of the following propositions can be false?

(i) Republics are not grateful
(ii) Some republics are not grateful
(iii) No republics are grateful
(iv) Some republics are grateful

Select the correct answer from the options given below
(A) (i) only
(B) (ii) only
(C) (1), (ii) and (iii)
(D) (ii) and (iii)

When subject and predicate of both the premises are the same but they differ in quality only, it is known as:

(B) Contraries
(C) Subaltern
(D) Super altern

If proposition ‘Students are serious’ is taken to be false, then which of the following propositions can be true?

(i) All students are serious
(ii) All students are not serious
(iii) Some students are not serious
(iv) Some serious ones are not students

Select the correct answer from the options given below: Codes
(A) (i) only
(B) (ii) and (iv)
(C) (iv) only
(D) (ii) and (iii)

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them. Which of the following conclusions could be validly drawn from the premises? Premises: (1) Some rings are bells (ii) No ring is ornament

Conclusions:
(A) All bells are ornaments
(B) Some bells are not ornaments
(C) No ring is bell
(D) All bells are not ornaments

When subject and predicate of both the premises is same but they differ in quality as well as quantity, it is known as:

(A) Superaltern
(B) Contraries
(D) Subaltern

Identify the reasoning in the following argument: ‘Method of teaching in the classroom can be compared to architectural plan of a building.”

(A) Analogical
(B) Hypothetical
(C) Inductive
(D) Deductive

The proposition ‘All birds are cows’ is equivalent to which of the following propositions?

(i) Some cows are birds
(ii) Some cows are not birds
(iii) Some birds are cows
(iv) Many birds are cows

Select the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (i) only
(B) (iii) and (iv)
(C) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)
(D) (iv) only

Identify the argument under which instantial propositions are inferable from Universal Proposition.

(A) Deductive argument
(B) Inductive argument
(C) Reductive argument
(D) Analogical argument

Consider the argument provided below: “Sound is impermanent because it is audible” Identify the fallacy involved in the above argument on the basis of Indian Logic from the options given below:

(A) Fallacy of Trivial reason
(B) Fallacy of irrelevant reason
(C) Fallacy of wrong assertion

A perception where we do not have the knowledge of an object characterized by any predicate but an apprehension of some unrelated elements is called as?

(A) Determinate Perception
(B) Indeterminate Perception
(C) Verbal testimony
(D) Implication

All gentlemen are polite No criminals are polite No criminals are gentlemen Identify the major term in above syllogism.

(A) Predicate in the premises
(B) Subject in the premises
(C) Subject of the first premise and predicate of the conclusion
(D) Subject of the second premise and subject of the conclusion

Bangalore is bigger than Jhansi, Satpura is bigger than Chittor, Rajgarh is not as big as Jhansi but is bigger than Satpura. Which is the smallest?

(A) Bangalore
(B) Jhansi
(C) Satpura
(D) Chittor

Consider the example given below: Devadatta is growing fat. He does not eat food during the day. Therefore, He must be eating food during the night, other things being equal. Identify the logic involved in the example provided above by choosing the correct answer from options given below:

(A) Arthapatti
(B) Anupalabdi
(C) Anumana
(D) Sabda

Consider the argument provided below: “Sound is permanent because it is a product like the jar”. Identity the fallacy involved in the above argument on the basis of Indian logic from the options given below:

(B) Fallacy of wrong assertion
(C) Fallacy of irrelevant reason
(D) Fallacy of trivial reason

Inductive argument proceeds from:

(A) Universal to Particular
(B) Particular to Universal
(C) Universal to Universal
(D) Particular to Particular

Among the five friends, Vineet is taller than Monika, but not as tall as Ram. Jacob is taller than Dalip but shorter than Monika. Who is the tallest in their group?

(A) Ram
(B) Monika
(C) Vineet
(D) Jacob

The proposition ‘No historians are non-mathematician’ is equivalent to which of the following proposition?

(A) All historians are mathematicians
(B) No historians are mathematicians
(C) Some historians are mathematicians
(D) Some historians are not mathematicians

‘All republics are grateful” and ‘Some republics are not grateful” cannot both be true, and they cannot both be false. This is called as

(A) contraries
(C) subaltern
(D) super altern

If the proposition “Houses are not bricks® is taken to be False then which of the following propositions can be True?

(a) All houses are bricks
(b) No house is brick
(c) Some houses are bricks
(d) Some houses are not bricks

Select the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (b) and (c)
(B) (a) and (d)
(C) (b) only
(D) (c) only

Oar is to rowboat as foot is to

(A) running
(B) sneaker
(C) skateboard
(D) jumping

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them. Which of the following conclusions could be validly drawn from the premises?

Premises:
(i) No paper is pen

Conclusions:
(C) Some handmade are not pen

Consider the argument given below : “Sound is permanent because it is inaudible” Identify the fallacy involved in the above argument on the basis of Indian logic from the options given below :

(A) Fallacy of trivial reason
(B) Fallacy of irrelevant reason
(D) Fallacy of wrong assertion

In a school, there are five teachers. A and B both are teaching Hindi and English. C and B both are teaching English and Geography. D and A both are teaching Punjabi and Hindi. E and B both are teaching History and French. Who among the teachers is teaching the maximum number of subjects?

(A) A
(B) B
(C) D
(D) C and E

Choose the correct alternative. Cup is to coffee as bowl is to .

(A) Dish
(B) Soup
(C) Spoon
(D) Food

The argument which claims that its conclusion is conclusively supported by its premises is called

(A) Analogical Argument
(B) Inductive Argument
(C) Demonstrative Argument
(D) Deductive Argument

Consider the example provided below: “There is no jar now on the ground” Identify the means of knowledge (Pramana) involved in the example from the options given below :

(A) Anupalabdhi
(B) Arthapatti
(C) Pratyaksha
(D) Anumana

When subject and predicate of both the premises is same but they differ only in quantity, it is known as:

(A) Subaltern
(B) Contraries
(C) Sub contraries

Choose the missing term out of the given alternatives: TEF, UGH,____, WKL

(A) CMN
(B) UJI
(C) VIJ
(D) IJT

Identify the reasoning in the argument: “Writing on paper is similar to writing on the board”.

(A) Deductive
(B) Hypothetical
(C) Analogical
(D) Inductive

The proposition ‘All leaves are green’ is equivalent to which of the following propositions?

(a) No leaves are green
(b) No leaves are non-green
(c) No leaves are in other colour than green
(d) No green is leaf

Select the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (b), (c) and (d)
(B) (a) and (b)
(C) (b) only
(D) (b) and (c)

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them. Which of the following conclusions could be validity drawn from the premises?

Premises:
(i) All fans are tubes
(ii) Bulbs are not tubes
Conclusions:
(a) Fans are not bulbs
(b) All tubes are fans
(c) Fans are bulbs
(d) No tube is bulb

Select the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (a), (b), (c)
(B) (a) and (d)
(C) (a) only
(D) (b), (c) and (d)

If proposition ‘some milk is curd’ is taken to be true, then which of the following propositions can be false?

(A) No milk is curd.
(B) All milk is curd.
(C) Some curd is milk.
(D) Some milk is not curd.

The proposition “Some trees are green’ is equivalent to which of the following propositions?

(a) Many trees are green.
(b) Some green things are trees.
(c) Some green things are not non-trees.
(d) Trees are usually green.

Select the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (a), (b), (c) and (d)
(B) (b) and (d)
(C) (a) only
(D) (c) and (d)

Identify the reasoning in the following arguments: ‘A pilot without flight plans is like an artist without paints.

(A) Analogical
(B) Deductive
(C) Inductive
(D) Hypothetical

Choose the missing term out of the given alternatives: QPO, NML, KIT, .

(A) HGF
(B) CAB
(GC) JKL
(D) GHI

Given below are two premises with four conclusions drawn from them. Which of the following conclusions could be validly drawn from the premises?

Premises:
(i) All cats are dogs.
(ii) All dogs are cows.
Conclusions:
(a) All cats are cows.
(b) Some cows arc cats.
(c) All dogs are cats.
(d) No cow is dog.

Select the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (b), (c) and (d)
(B) (d) only
(C) (a) and (b)
(D) (b) and (d)

In which of the following arguments ‘the relation that exists between premises and conclusion is that of logical necessity’?

(A) Inductive
(B) Deductive
(C) Demonstrative
(D) Analogical

Six friends A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting in a closed circle facing the center. E is to the left of D. C is between A and B. F is between E and A. Who is to the right of C?

(A) A
(B) B
(C) D
(D) E

“All Judges are fairminded’ is an example of ____ proposition.

(A) Universal affirmative
(B) Universal negative
(C) Particular affirmative
(D) Particular negative

Inference (anumana) in Indian Logic is rooted in:

(A) variable relation between minor term and major term.
(B) invariable relation between middle term and minor term.
(C) variable concomitance between middle term and major term.
(D) invariable concomitance between middle term and major term.

A, B,C, D, E and F are six members in a family in which there are two married couples. E, a teacher is married to the doctor, who is the mother of C and F. B, the lawyer is married to A. A has one son and one grandson. Of the two married ladies, one is a housewife. There is also one student and one male engineer in the family. How is A related to C?

(A) Grandfather
(B) Mother
(C) Sister
(D) Grandmother

Choose the missing term out of the following: JAK, KBL, LCM, MDN,

(A) OEP
(B) NEO
(C) MEN
(D) PFQ

The converse of “All cats are mammals” is

(A) Some mammals are not cats
(B) No mammals are cats
(C) Some mammals are cats
(D) All mammals are cats

Consider the following with reference to the Indian School of logic

(a) It is related to form of the argument only
(b) It is related to the content of the argument only
(c) It is related to perceptual knowledge alone
(d) It is related to presenting analogies alone

(A) a only
(B) b only
(C) Both a and b
(D) Both c and d

In the statement “No dogs are reptiles”, which terms are distributed?

(A) Only subject term
(B) Only predicate term
(C) Both subject and predicate terms
(D) Neither subject nor predicate terms

“Mr X lives in a slum and is unemployed. Therefore, Mr X deserves to be a minister.” Which kind of fallacy is committed in this argument?

(A) Fallacy of composition
(C) Fallacy of Division
(D) Fallacy of Accident

Which of the following is not a necessary step when you present an argument based on interference before the others according to the Classical Indian School of Logic?

(A) Nigamana
(B) Upamana
(C) Upanaya
(D) Udaharana

“In the hospital, some nurses don’t wear white dress, some doctors have private practice and medicines prescribed are of high cost. Therefore, treatment in this hospital is of poor quality”. What fallacy does this argument make?

(A) Fallacy of composition
(B) Slippery slope
(C) Fallacy of accident
(D) Fallacy of division

“If it rains, then the drought will end. The drought has ended. Therefore, it rained”. Which kind of fallacy does this commit?

(A) Deductive fallacy
(B) Inductive fallacy
(C) Abductive fallacy
(D) Informal fallacy

Consider the following statements and choose the right option

(a) Middle term should be distributed in atleast onc premise
(b) Middle term should be present in the conclusion
(c) Both premises can be particular in a valid argument
(d) Both premises can be negative in a valid argument

(A) (c) and (d)
(B) Only (c)
(C) Only (a)
(D) (b) and (c)

Which of the following is true with reference to anupalabdhi as a means of knowledge?

(A) I do not cognize the pot on the table, therefore it is absent there
(B) I directly perceive the absence of pot on the table
(C) Linfer the absence of pot on the table since I do not find it to the be there
(D) I know the absence of the pot on the table because I know its similarity with other absences

Which one of the following is the characteristic feature of an argument?

(A) It is either valid or invalid
(B) It is neither valid nor invalid
(C) It is true or false
(D) It is neither true nor false

In the word TEACHER is coded as TCJACCV and the word SURGEON is coded as PMGETSU in a certain code language, then which of the following will represent the word CONCORD in that language?

(A) FTQEPQE
(B) EQPEQTF
(C) FPQAPME
(D) EMPAQPF

Which one of the following combination of propositions is considered to be contraries in the classical square of opposition?

(A) Universal affirmative and universal negative
(B) Universal affirmative and particular affirmative
(C) Particular affirmative and universal negative
(D) Particular affirmative and particular negative

Consider the following statements with reference to categorical propositions:

(a) “Some birds are mammals” is a particular affirmative proposition and it distributes subject term alone.
(b) “Some birds are mammals” is a particular affirmative proposition and it distributes predicate term alone.
(c) “Some birds are mammals” is a particular affirmative proposition and it distributes both subject and predicate terms.
(d) “Some birds are mammals” is a particular affirmative proposition and it distributes neither subject nor predicate term.

(A) Only (a) and (d) are correct
(B) Only (c) and (d) are correct
(C) Only (b) is correct
(D) Only (d) is correct

Which one of the following is not a part of immediate deductive inference?

(A) Conversion
(B) Obversion
(C) Syllogism
(D) Contraposition

Pointing towards a man, a woman said, “His wife’s father is the husband of my mother’s only daughter”. How is the woman related to the man?

(A) Daughter
(B) Sister-in-law
(C) Sister
(D) Mother-in -law

Assumption of an unperceived fact in order to reconcile two apparently inconsistent perceived facts is known in Indian Logic as:

(A) Anumana (Inference)
(B) Upamana (Comparison)
(C) Arthapatti (Implication)
(D) Anupalabdhi (Non-apprehension)

Which one of the following is signified by the term ‘hetu’ in the process of Anumana (inference) in classical Indian School of Logic?

(A) Example Provided
(B) Statement of reason
(C) Proposition to be proved
(D) Conclusion Proved

Given below are two statements — one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R.

Assertion A: Skill development is a key feature in every individual’s life.
Reasons R: An individual who wants to get employed, need to possess good education only.

In the context of above two statements, choose the correct option:
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A
(C) A is true, but R is false
(D) A is false, but R is true

Devdatta is fat and he does not eat during the day. Therefore, Devdatta is eating during the night. The above example, in classical Indian School of Logic, is a case of:

(A) Comparison
(B) Implication
(C) Perception
(D) Verbal Testimony

Which one of the following propositions is a contrary to “All poets are dreamers”?

(A) Some poets are dreamers
(B) Some poets are not dreamers
(C) No poets are dreamers
(D) No dreamers are poets

Which one of the following is signified by Udaharana of Anumana (Inference) in Indian Logic?

(A) Statement of Reason
(B) Proposition to be proved
(C) Conclusion proved
(D) Universal proposition along with an instance

As per the classical square of opposition, if ‘A’ proposition is given as true, then which one of the following is correct?

(A) “E” proposition is false, “I”” proposition is true and “O” proposition is false
(B) “E” proposition is true, “I” proposition is true and “O” proposition is true
(C) “E” proposition is false, “I” proposition is false and “O” proposition is true
(D) “E” proposition is true, “I” proposition is false and “O” proposition is false

Consider the following statements with reference to the proposition “Some girls are not students”

(a) Subjects term students is distributed
(b) Predicate term girls is undistributed
(c) Predicate term students is distributed
(d) Subject term girls is undistributed

(A) Only (a) and (c) are correct
(B) Only (b) and (c) are correct
(C) Only (a) and (d) are correct
(D) Only (c) and (d) are correct

Which given of the following sets of letters when sequentially placed at the gaps in the letter series below shall complete it? bb__b_ ab_ cbba__ bcbb__

(A)acbac
(B)acbbb
(C)cbbba
(D)abbbc

According to classical Indian School of logic, what is the correct sequence of steps involved in Anumana (influence)?

(A) Upanaya, Pratijna, Hetu, Udaharana, Nigmana
(B) Pratijna, Hetu, Upanaya, Udaharana, Nigmana
(C) Pratijna, Upanaya, Hetu, Udaharana, Nigmana
(D) Pratijna, Hetu, Udaharana, Upanaya, Nigmana

Consider the following argument: Statements: Some chairs are curtains. All curtains are bedsheets. Conclusion: Some chairs are bedsheets. What is the Mood of the above proposition?

(A) IAI
(B) IAA
(C) IIA
(D) AII

Which one of the following hetwabhasa (fallacy) is involved in the argument, ‘Sound is element because it is caused’?

(B) Satpratipaksa or inferentially contradicted middle
(C) Sadhyasama or the unproved middle

In a certain coding language, ‘AEIOU’ is written as ‘TNHDZ’. Using the same coding language, ‘BFIPV’ will be written as

(A) UOIEA
(B) AEIOU
(C) CGKQW
(D) WQKGC

Which one of the following fallacious hefu (middle term) is not uniformly concomitant with the major term?

(A) Asatpratipaksa
(B) Auyatireki
(C) Anyonya-Asiddha
(D) Suyabhicara

Which of the following is converse of ‘Some S is P’?

(A) Some S is not P
(B) Some P is not S
(C) Some P is S
(D) No P is S

“All tigers are animals”. This is an example of which type of proposition? Options:

(A) Particular Negative
(B) Particular Affirmative
(C) Universal Negative
(D) Universal Affirmative

The term “Yogaja’ (intuitive) pertains to which of the following pramanas? Options:

(A) Perception
(B) Inference
(C) Verbal testimony
(D) Comparison

Which of the following pramanas is used by classical Indian school of logic to prove the existence of God? Options:

(A) Arthapatti (postulation)
(B) Upamana (comparison)
(C) Perception (Pratyaksa)
(D) Inference (Anumana)

The inference “A mouse is an animal. Therefore, a large mouse is a large animal” commits which one of the following fallacies? Options:

(A) Straw man
(B) Slipper slope
(C) Equivocation
(D) Fallacy of composition

In which of the following propositions, both can be true simultaneously but cannot be false simultaneously? Options:

(A) Contrary
(C) Sub contrary
(D) Subaltern

A is father of B and C is sister of A. D is grandson of C. How is D related to B? Options:

(A) Uncle
(B) Nephew
(C) Cousin
(D) Grandson

If “a’ is inversely proportional to ‘b” and ‘b’ inversely proportional to ‘c’, then Options:-

(A) “a’ is inversely proportional to ‘c’
(B) ‘a’ is directly proportional to “c’
(C) “a’ is constant
(D) ‘a’ is directly proportional to ‘bc’

The distinction between Savikalpaka (determinate) and Nirvikalpaka (indeterminate) is made with respect to which of the following pramanas? Options:-

(A) Anumana (inference)
(B) Pratyaksa (perception)
(C) Arthapatti (postulation)
(D) Upamana (comparison)

The term ‘Paksa’ according to classical Indian school of logic refers to which of the following terms in the process of inference? Options:-

(A) Major term
(B) Undefined term
(C) Minor term
(D) Middle term

A fallacy in which an opponent’s position is depicted as being more extreme or unreasonable than is justified by what was actually asserted is called Options:-

(B) The Red Herring
(D) Straw Man

If *SOLUTION’ is ‘RSKTSH5M’ then ‘CROME’ will be written as Options:-

(A) BQSHL
(B) BSQLH
(C) BQ5SLD
(D) BS5LH

In a certain code, ‘UNIVERSAL’ is written as ‘LASREVINU’. In the same coding language, ‘COMMERCIALS’ will be written as: Options:

(A) SLIACREMOMC
(B) SLIACREMOCM
(C) SLAICREMMOC
(D) SLAIRCEMOMC

‘A’ is the only sister of a man ‘B’ and ‘C’ is the maternal grandson of B’s father. How is ‘A’ related to ‘C’? Options:

(A) Sister
(B) Niece
(C) Grandmother
(D) Mother

Which of the following conditions are necessary for Anumana (inference) according to Classical Indian Logic?

a) Cognition of the Aetu (middle term) in the paksa or minor term
b) The relation of invariable concomitance between the middle and the major term
c) Cognition of the major term in the minor term
d) Cognition of minor term only

Choose the correct answer from the options given below Options:
(A) a and b only
(B) b and c only
(C) a, b and c only
(D) a and c only

Consider the following argument: Major Premise: No squares are rectangles Minor Premise: All rectangles are circles Conclusion: Some circles are not squares What is the Mood of the above proposition? Options:

(A) AIE
(B) AEO
(C) EAO
(D) EAI

‘Some animals are not harmful’ is an example of which of the following types of propositions? Options:

(A) Particular Affirmative
(B) Particular Negative
(C) Universal Negative
(D) Universal Affirmative

What fallacy is committed in the following argument? “Mr. X is wrong in what he said because he is undisciplined by nature” Options:

Consider the following propositions. No television is a computer. Some televisions are not computer. According to the square of opposition; the above opposition is called as Options:

(A) Subalternation
(B) Subcontrary
(D) Contrary

In a certain coding language “CHEMISTRY” is written as DGFLJRUQZ, then in the same code ‘GEOMETRY” will be written as: Options:

(A) HDPLFSSZ
(B) HDLPFSXS
(C) HLDPFSSX
(D) HDPLFSSX

The next term in the following series is ABB, BCF, CDL, _ ? Options:

(A) DEU
(B) DET
(C) DES
(D) DER

The propositions “All Indians eat rice” and “Some Indians eat rice” are an example of Options:

(A) Subalternation
(B) Contraries
(D) Sub contraries

In Indian logic, which means of knowledge is drawn from the similarity between two objects? Options:

(A) Comparison
(B) Inference
(C) Perception
(D) Implication

Sir. X is penniless. Therefore, he should be preferred for admission to college”. This reasoning represents which kind of fallacy? Options:

(D) Ignoratio elenchi

MOTION is to RUN as EMOTION is to: Option:

(A) FURIOUS
(B) FEELING
(C) HEART
(D) ENJOY

The missing letters in the given letter series are: BCE, CDG, DEI, ___, FGM Option:

(A) EFK
(B) EGJ
(C) EFH
(D) EGH

“Planets are big. Therefore, the atoms from which they are made are big.” This inference commits which kind of fallacy? Option:

(A) Fallacy of Division
(B) Fallacy of Ambiguity
(C) Fallacy of Equivocation

“Some teachers are not sincere” is an example of which category of proposition? Option:

(A) Universal negative
(B) Universal affirmative
(C) Particular affirmative
(D) Particular negative

Which of the following is correct about the sentence, “Some men are not married”? Option:

(A) The subject is distributed
(B) The predicate is distributed
(C) Both subject and predicate are distributed
(D) Neither subject or predicate is distributed

Which one of the following is not a sense-organ according to classical Indian school of logic? Option:

(A) Manas
(B) Savikalpaka
(C) Caksuh
(D) Srotra

“Have you stopped telling lies?” This type of question commits which kind of fallacy? Option:

(A) Fallacy of Complex Question
(B) Fallacy of Ambiguity
(C) Fallacy of Equivocation
(D) Fallacy of Accident

Find the missing letters in the series: BCA, YZX,EFD, HIG Option:

(A) UVW
(B) VWU
(C) WVU
(D) VUW

Vinod’s mother-in-law is the mother of Amit’s mother-in-law. How is Vinod related to Amit? Option:

(A) Vinod is brother of Amit
(B) Vinod is father of Amit
(C) Vinod is uncle of Amit
(D) Vinod is father-in-law of Amit

In a certain code. FISH is written as EHRG. The code for JUNGLE will be Option:

(A) ITNFKD
(B) KVOHMF
(C) ITMFKD
(D) ITMFKD

“Everyone believes that there is a soul. Therefore, you should also believe it.” This inference commits which kind of fallacy? Option:

(C) Fallacy of Accident
(D) Fallacy of Ambiguity

“God is great because He does great things” This inference commits which kind of fallacy? Option:

(B) Fallacy of Composition
(C) Fallacy of Division
(D) Petitio Principii

Anil’s participation in classroom is indifferent. His parents do not find him to be active either. But his performance in examinations, ranges from being good to outstanding. Therefore, he must be studying privately, in a clandestine way. This is an example of which kind of Pramana? Option:

(A) Upamana (Comparison)
(B) Anumana (Inference)
(C) Anupalabdhi (Non-apprehension)
(D) Arthapatti (Implication)

The distinction between purvavat and sesavat is made with reference to which of the following pramanas? Option:

(A) Anumana (Inference)
(B) Pratyaksa (Perception)
(C) Comparison (Upamana)
(D) Abhava (Absence)

Which sentence cannot fit into the AEIO framework? Option:

(A) No salt has iodine
(B) The salt on the table has iodine
(C) All salt has iodine
(D) Some salt has iodine

In a park A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting. C is the brother of D’s husband and son of A. F is the daughter of D and sister of E.

(i) E is the grandson of A
(ii) F is the daughter of C
(iii) B is the father of F
(iv) There are one son and one daughter in the group
(v) Cis the uncle of E

Choose the correct answer from the options given below: Codes
(A) (i), (ii) and (iii) only
(B) (i), (iii) and (v) only
(C) (ii), (iv) and (v) only
(D) (ii), (iii) and (iv) only

If some pens are pencils but no pencil is sharpener, then:

(i) All pencils are pens
(ii) Some sharpeners are pencils
(iii) Some pens are not sharpener
(iv) Some pencils are not pens

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (i) and (iii) only
(B) (ii) and (iii) only
(C) (iii) and (iv) only
(D) (ii) and (iv) only

Which one of the following schools has not accepted anumana (inference) as a valid source of knowledge? Option:

(C) Charvaka
(D) Sankhya

Given below are two Statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and other is labelled as Reason R.

Assertion A: Substance is always the subject of all predicates.
Reason R: Substance is self-existent and self-conceived. In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

Given below are two Statements: “The water of the pond is muddy. It must have rained last night.’ What kind of Anumana (inference) has been used in the above statements. Choose the correct option from the following:

(A) S’esavat anumana
(B) Comparison
(C) Purvovat anumana
(D) Both A and B

Match the following.

List-1 (Philosophical doctrines)
(b) Anupalabdhi
(c) Apoha
(d) Abhava
List-11 (Philosophical schools)
(i) Nyaya
(ii) Buddhism
(iii) Vedanta
(iv) Jainism

Codes (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (ii), (iv), (iid), (i)
(B) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)
(C) (i), (ii), (iv), (iii)
(D) (iii), (i), (ii), (iv)

Which one of the following pramanas has been accepted in Buddhism? Option:

(A) Arthapatti
(B) Anupalabdhi
(C) Sabda
(D) Pratyaksha

Six girls A, B, C, D, E and F are standing in a row. Only B is standing between D and F. A does not stand next to either F or D. C does not stand next to D. Only E stands between A and C.

(i) Only F stands between B and C
(ii) Only C stands between A and F
(iii) D and A occupy extreme ends
(iv) Only E stands between F and A
(v) Only B stands between D and F

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below: Codes
(A) (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) only
(B) (i), (iii) and (v) only
(C) (ii), (iii) and (iv) only
(D) (ii), (iv) and (v) only

Arrange the sequential order of syllogism in Nyaya philosophy:

(i) Pratijna
(ii) Hetu
(iii) Udaharana
(iv) Nigamana
(v) Upanaya

Choose the correct answer from the options given below: Codes
(A) (i), (ii), (iv), (v), (iii)
(B) (i), (ii), (iii), (v), (iv)
(C) (i), (iv), (ii), (v), (iii)
(D) (i), (iii), (iv), (ii), (v)

Hetvabhasa (fallacy) produced in the conclusion due to refutation of Sadhya by Hetu is known as: Option:

(A) Asiddha
(B) Savyabhicara
(C) Viruddha
(D) Satpratipaksha

Match the following.

List-1
(a) Knowledge is recollection
(b) Knowledge is either analytic or synthetic
(c) Knowledge is synthetic apriori
(d) Knowledge is perception and perception is knowledge
List-II
(i) Berkley
(ii) Kant
(iii) Hume
(iv) Plato

Codes (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (i), (iv), (iii), (ii)
(B) (ii), (iii), (i), (iv)
(C) (iii), (i), (ii), (iv)
(D) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)

In Universal Negative Proposition, how are the terms distributed? Choose the correct option from the following: Option:

(A) Subject is distributed. predicate is undistributed
(B) Subject is undistributed. predicate is distributed
(C) Both the terms are distributed
(D) Neither the subject is distributed nor the predicate

Match the following.

List-I (Concepts)
(a) Antinomies of pure reason
(c) Clearness and distinctness
(d) Pre-established harmony
List-II (Philosophers)
(i) Leibniz
(ii) Kant
(iii) Aristotle
(iv) Descartes

Codes (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (i), (iv), (ii), (iii)
(B) (ii), (iii), (iv), (i)
(C) (iv), (ii), (iii), (i)
(D) (iii), (i), (iv), (ii)

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: Two triangles are said to be congruent if their corresponding angles are equal and corresponding sides are proportional.
Statement II: Two triangles are said to be similar if their corresponding angles and corresponding sides are equal. In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement 1 is correct but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is true

Given below are 2 statements:

Statement I: When we perform an experiment, then the set S of all possible outcomes is called the sample space.
Statement II: Any superset of a sample space is called an event. In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

In terms of the relationship indicated below, which word will correctly pair to replace the question mark? Frown : Pain :: Smile : Option:

(A) Joy
(B) Sorrow
(C) Failure
(D) Discomfiture

Given below are 2 statements: one is labelled as Assertion A and other is labelled as Reason R.

Assertion A: Since the perception of hardness is not necessarily connected with its colour, it can be said that all the perceptions seen conjoined but never connected.
Reason R: Causal relationship is always contingent and probable because it is derived from experience. In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A
(C) A is true but R is false
(D) A is false but R is true

Given below are 2 propositions: All philosophers are fallible. Hegel is not fallible. In the classical square of opposition. which one of the following is the correct option for this?

(A) Contrary
(B) Sub contrary
(D) Subaltern

Given below are 2 propositions. Some animals are fierce. Some animals are not fierce. In the classical square of opposition which one of the following is the correct option?

(A) Subaltern
(C) Contrary
(D) Sub-contrary

Match the following.

List-I (Concept)
(a) Causality is apriori
(b) Causality is synthetic
(c) Causality is dialectical
(d) Causality is material
List-II (Philosopher)
(i) Aristotle
(ii) Hegel
(iii) Hume
(iv) Kant Codes (a) (b) (c) (d)

(A) (i), (i), (iv), (iii)
(B) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)
(C) (i), (iv), (iii), (ii)
(D) (iii), (i), (ii), (iv)

Given below are 2 statements:

Statement I: Co-primes are the numbers which have only 1 as their common factor. Statement II: Factorization is the decomposition of a number into the other numbers which when added together will give the original number.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below: Codes
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

In terms of the relationship indicated below, which word will correctly pair to replace the questions mark? Worse : Bad :: Doting : ? Option:

(A) Reverence
(B) Fond
(C) Hate
(D) Dislike

Given below is a proposition: ‘The weather is very cold today.’ Which one of the following, according to Nyaya, is the correct option? Option:

(A) Samanya lakshana
(B) Yogaja
(C) Jnanalakshana
(D) Sannikarsha

Arrange in sequence the following theory of causality in Aristotle’s Philosophy:

(i) Material cause
(ii) Efficient cause
(iii) Formal cause
(iv) Final cause

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (i), (iii), (ii), (iv)
(B) (i), (iv), (i), (iii)
(C) (iii), (ii), (i), (iv)
(D) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)

Given below are 2 statements:

Statement I: Some examinations are too long. Some examinations are too difficult. Therefore, some examinations are too long and too difficult.
Statement II: Some dogs chase cats. All dogs have fleas. Therefore, some cat-chasing dogs have fleas.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below: Codes
(A) Both Statement | and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Given below are 2 statements:

Statement I: Human reason has this peculiar fate that it reaches at a stage when it can neither answer certain questions nor can it ignore such questions.
Statement II: Human reason by its own nature, is not competent to resolve certain questions concerning the ultimate reality.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below: Codes
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Which of the following Pramanas is accepted in Vaisheshika philosophy?

I. Pratyaksha
II. Anuman
III. Upamana
IV. Sabda
V. Arthapatti

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) I and II only
(B) II and III only
(C) III and IV only
(D) I and IV only

Match List I with List II

List I (Concept/ Doctrine)
II. Abhava
III. Samyavastha
List II (School)
1. Vedant
2. Sankhya
3. Nyaya
4. Buddhism

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) I-1, II-3, III-4, IV-2
(B) I-2, II-4, III-3, IV-1
(C) I-4, II-3, III-2, IV-1
(D) I-4, II-1, III-2, IV-3

In the figure of categorical syllogism, Quantity and Quality of a proposition determine: Option:

(A) Validity of Syllogism
(B) Mood of the syllogism
(C) Figure of the syllogism
(D) Fallacy of the syllogism

Match List I with List II

List I (Concept)
I. Phenomenon and Noumenon
II. Potential and actual being
III. Mind and body Dualism
IV. Primary and Secondary qualities
List II (Philosopher)
1. Aristotle
2. Descartes
3. Locke
4. Kant

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) I-1, II-3, III-4, IV-2
(B) I-3, II-2, III-1, IV-4
(C) I-4, II-1, III-2, IV-3
(D) I-2, II-4, III-3, IV-1

According to the law of excluded middle: Option:

(A) A proposition could be true and false simultaneously
(B) A proposition is either true or false
(C) A proposition is true if it is false
(D) A proposition is neither true nor false

The second member of Nyaya syllogism which states the reason for establishment of the proposition is called: Option:

(A) Pratijina
(B) Hetu
(C) Udaharana
(D) Upnaya

In the argument. ‘sky flower is fragrant because it is a lotus’ e.g. whichever is lotus, is fragrant e.g. lotus growing in that pond’ Mention the type of fallacy from the following: Option:

(A) Swaroopasidha
(B) Ashrvasidha
(C) Pyaptytvasidha
(D) Virudha

Match List I with List II. List I gives the four types of fallacies while List II explains their description.

List I
A) Asidha
B) Savyabhichara
C) Satpratipaksha
List II
I) Here the middle term is contradicted by another middle term.
II) Here the middle term is contradicted by some other pramana and not by inference.
III) It is the fallacy of the irregular middle
IV) It is the fallacy of the unproved middle

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A-II, B-I, C-III, D-IV
(B) A-III, B-IV, C-II, D-I
(C) A-I B-II, C-IV, D-III
(D) A-IV, B-III, C-I, D-II

Given below are two statements: One is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A: Indian Philosophy has been intensely spiritual and has always emphasized the need of practical realization of truth.
Reason R: The word ‘darshana’ means vision’ and also the instrument of vision which stands for the direct immediate and intuitive vision of Reality and also includes the means which lead to this realization.

In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A) is not correct but R is correct

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: In Indian Philosophy. Nyaya advocates the theory of extrinsic validity of knowledge called “Paratah Pramanvad”.
Statement II: The Mimansa advocates the self-validity of knowledge both in respect of its origin and ascertainment.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Identify the characteristics of the ‘middle term’ from the following:

I. It must be present in the minor term
II. It must be present in all positive instances in which the major term is present
III. It is logical statement which is to be proved
IV. It must be absent in all negative instances in which major term is absent
V. It is drawn from the preceding propositions

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) I, II, III only
(B) Ii, III, IV only
(C) III, IV, V only
(D) I, II, IV only

‘Upanaya’ in Indian ‘Nyaya Syllogism’ corresponds to which of the following in Aristotelian Syllogism? Option:

(A) Major premise
(B) Minor premise
(C) Conclusion
(D) Both major and minor premises

‘Fire is not warm because it is produced such as water’, is an example of which type of fallacy? Option:

(A) Satpratipraksha
(C) Virudha
(D) Swaroopasidha

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: Keval vyatireki form of inference is that when the middle term is the differentium of the minor term.
Statement II: Kevalanvayi from of inference is that when the middle term is both positively and negatively related to the major term.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement Iand Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

The knowledge of the relation between name and an object denoted by that name is called: Option:

(A) Verbal testimony
(B) Implication
(C) Inference
(D) Comparison

In terms of Indian logic, “This hill has smoke which is invariably associated with fire,” is called: Option:

(A) Pratigya or proposition
(B) Universal concomitance together with an example
(C) Upanaya- the application of the universal concomitance to the present case
(D) Conclusion or Nigamana drawn from the preceding proposition

From the following identify those which illustrate the fallacy of the unproved middle?

I. Ashrayasidha
II. Swarupasidha
III. Vyvapyatvasidha
IV. Virudha

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) I, II, III only
(B) II, III, IV only
(C) I, IV, V only
(D) I, III, IV only

“Fat Krishnadatta eats either during day or night, Fat Krishnadatta does not eat during day, therefore fat Krishnadatta eats during night”. The above is an example of which type of inference?

(A) Comparison (Upamana)
(B) Verbal testimony (Shabda)
(C) Negation (Anupalabdhi)
(D) Implication (Arthapatti)

A and B play Football, Cricket and Hockey. B and C play Hockey and Badminton. C and D play Badminton and Tennis. D and A play Football, Cricket and Tennis. Find out the correct answer among the following:

(i) C does not play Cricket
(ii) B and D both play Tennis
(iii) A plays football, Cricket and Badminton
(iv) A, B and D play Football and Cricket
(v) Except B all play Tennis

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below: Codes
(A) (i), (ii) and (v) only
(B) (i), (iv) and (v) only
(C) (i), (ii) and (iii) only
(D) (iii), (iv) and (v) only

What will come in place of the question mark (?) in the following series? U, O, I, ?, A

(A) M
(B) G
(C) B
(D) E

If the day before yesterday was Friday, what will be the third day after the day after tomorrow?

(A) Friday
(B) Saturday
(C) Thursday
(D) Wednesday

Match the following.

List-1
(a) Lizard : Reptile
(b) Tennis : Court
(c) Bull : Cow
(d) Botany : Plant
List-II
(i) Skating : Rink
(ii) Haematology : Blood
(iii) Eagle : Bird
(iv) Wizard : Witch

Codes (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (i), (ii), (iv), (ii)
(B) (ii). (iv). (i), (iii)
(C) (iii), (i), (iv), (ii)
(D) (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)

If January 1, 2007 was a Monday, then January 1, 2008 is a: Option:

(A) Sunday
(B) Monday
(C) Tuesday
(D) Wednesday

Next letter in the logical pattern O, T, T, F, F, S, S, E, N, is Option:

(A)N
(B)E
(C)F
(D)T

A’s father has five sons. Names of four sons are M, O, Q and S. What is the name of his fifth son? Option:

(A)T
(B)U
(C)A
(D)K

Today is what day, if, day before yesterday it was 13th of the present month and 3rd day of the last month, with 31 days, was a Tuesday? Option:

(A) Sunday
(B) Tuesday
(C) Wednesday
(D) Friday

Given below are two statements

Statement I: If A, B and C are standing in a circle looking at the center and B is just left of A, then C is just right of B
Statement II: If X, Y and Z are standing in a circle looking at the center and X is just right of Y, then Z is just right of X.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below (A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement [ is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

A,B, C, D, E and F are standing in a circle and looking at the center. Only D is between A and B. Only F is between A and C. E is just left of B. Who is the only one standing between E and F?

(A) A
(B) B
(C) D
(D) C

All things which have smoke have fire; This hill has smoke; Therefore, the hill has smoke; No non-fiery things have smoke; This hill has smoke; Therefore, this hill is not non-fiery The above is an example of which type of inference in Indian Logic?

(A) Purvavat
(B) Anvayavyatireki
(C) Kevalanvayi
(D) Kevalavyatireki

Asidha is a fallacy when the middle term is

(A) Unproved
(B) Too wide
(C) Too narrow
(D) Non-exclusive

A man is facing south-west. If he turns 90° in the anticlockwise direction and then 135° in the clockwise direction, which direction is he facing now?

(A) West
(B) North-West
(C) North-East
(D) East

If the word HEART is written as SQPMZ, then EARTH can be written as: Option:

(A) QPMSZ
(B) QPMZS
(C) QMPSZ
(D) QMPZS

In the sequence, 10KL13, 15PQ18, 19TU22, , what will be last place? Option:

(A) 22VW23
(B) 22VW24
(C) 23XY25
(D) 23XY26

In the statement ‘the hill has smoke because it has fire’, which type of fallacy may be identified? Option:

(A) Asidha
(D) Vyapyatvasiddha

Consider the following. All knowable objects are nameable; The pot is a knowable object; Therefore, the pot is nameable. The above is an example of which type of inference? Option:

(A) Kevalanvayi
(B) Kevalavyatireki
(C) Anvaya Vyatircki
(D) Shesavat

Match the following.

List-I (Pairs)
(a) Newspaper – Press
(b) Dog – Kennel
(c) Hen – Chick
(d) Darkness – Lamp
List-1II (Pair of analogies)
(i) Thirst – Water
(ii) Cow – Calf
(iii) Cloth – Mill
(iv) Mouse – Hole

Codes (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (i), (iv), (i), (iii)
(B) (iii), (iv), (i), (ii)
(C) (iv), (i), (i), (iii)
(D) (i), (iii), (ii), (iv)

In a coded language if ANIMAL is written as LAIMNA. then CIRCLE will be written as: Option:

(A) ELRCIC
(B) ELCRIC
(C) ERLCIC
(D) ERCLIC

Find the odd one out among the following. Option:

(A) DIG;
(B) HkLo
(C) MoPs
(D) TvWz

In a family of four A, B, C and D; D is taller than B, C is shortest of all and A is taller than only one person, then:

(i) Number of persons taller than A is the number of persons shorter than B
(ii) D is tallest
(iii) A is shortest
(iv) No one is shorter than C
(v) Only one person is shorter than B

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) (i), (ii) and (v) only
(B) (i), (ii) and (iv) only
(C) (ii) and (iii) only
(D) (i) and (iv) only

Match the following.

List-1 (Typical Aristotelian syllogism)
(a) Socrates is mortal
(b) Because he is a man
(c) Whoever is a man, is a mortal e.g. Pythagoras
(d) Socrates is a man who is invariably a mortal
(e) Therefore Socrates is a mortal
List-II (Technical names in Nyaya philosophy)
(i) Nigamana
(ii) Upanaya
(iii) Udaharan
(iv) Hetu
(v) Pratijna

Codes (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (v), (iv), (iii), (ii), (i)
(B) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v)
(C) (iii), (i), (ii), (v), (iv)
(D) (ii), (iii), (i), (iv), (v)

What type of fallacy is implied in the following? “Fire is cold, because it is a substance” Option:

(B) Virudha
(D) Anupsarhhan

All flowers are toys. Some toys are trees. Some butterflies are trees. then

A. No buttertly is flower
B. Some butterflies are toys
C. Some toys are flowers
D. Some trees are flowers
E. Some trees are butterflies

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and B only
(B) C and E only
(C) B and E only
(D) B and D only

“Wherever there is smoke, there is fire. There is smoke in Mr Verma’s chamber. There must be fire in Mr Verma’s chamber.” In accordance with Indian logic, this is an example of Option:

(A) Pratyaksha pramana (Perception)
(B) Upmana (Comparison)
(C) Hetvabhasa (Fallacy)
(D) Vyapti (Invariable relations)

In order to authenticate the environmental values as advocated by our ancestors, a scholar cites examples from Vedas. The means of knowledge used by him/her in terms of Indian logic will be called Option:

(A) Anumana (inference)
(B) Arthapatti ( Implication)
(C) Shabda (Verbal testimony)
(D) Upamana (Comparison)

In the series B, D, H, J, N, P, ___ What will come after P? Option:

(A) U
(B) S
(C) R
(D) T

If LIGHT is written as GILTH and FIGHT is written as GIFTH then SIGHT will be written as: Option:

(A) GISHT
(B) GISTH
(C) GSITH
(D) GSIHT

In the following letter series, the next term is bdf, cgi, hji, ………

(A) kmo
(B) jmp
(C) ilo
(D) kno

Given below are two statements

Statement I: All knowledge is a recollection. It is true on a certain account
Statement II: All men by nature, desire understanding In light of the above statements,

choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II arc false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Given below are two statements

Statement I: When I look deep into myself, I always stumble with one perception or another. I can never catch myself
Statement II: Self is the logical presupposition of all knowledge. Therefore, the concepts like substance and person cannot be applied to it In light of the above statement,

choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement 1 is false but Statement II is true

Given below are two statements

Statement I: Different communities exist independent of one another but jointly somehow they give an idea of communitarian life of a society
Statement II: Earth exists either through a blind chance or through an inner necessity or through an-cxternal cause In light of the above statements,

choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement T is true but Statement IT is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement IT is true

Deduction proceeds from

(A) Particular to universal
(B) Universal to particular
(C) Particular to particular
(D) Universal to universal

Consider the following letter series and identify the next term Ace, fhj, kmo, _____

(A) npr
(B) rtv
(C) prt
(D) uwy

Match List I with List II

List I Theories
A. Episteme and Doxa
B. Potential and Actual being
C. Vyavaharika and Parmarthik
D. Rational and Actual
List II Philosophers
I. Aristotle
II. Hegel
III. Sankara
IV. Plato

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A-I, B-II, C-III, D-IV
(B) A-II, B-III, C-IV, D-I
(C) A-III, B-IV, C-II, D-I
(D) A-IV, B-I, C-III, D-II

What type of cognition is beyond the ambit of perception?

(A) Anumiti
(B) Upamiti
(C) Nirvikalpaka pratyaksha
(D) Savikalpaka pratyaksha

‘Golden mountain is fiery because it is smoky’ Which type of fallacy is committed by the above inference?

(A) Asraya siddhi
(B) Svarupa siddhi
(C) Vyapyatva siddhi
(D) Savyabhichara

In a proposition which is particular affirmative,

(A) Subject term is distributed but the predicate is not distributed
(B) Neither the subject nor the predicate is distributed
(C) Both subject and predicate are distributed
(D) Subject is undistributed but predicate is distributed

Match List I with List II

List I Concepts
A. Abhava
B. Anupalabdhi
C. Apoha
List II Schools
I. Jainism
II. Buddhism
III. Vedanta
IV. Nyaya

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A-II, B-III, C-I, D-IV
(B) A-III, B-IV, C-II, D-I
(C) A-IV, B-III, C-II, D-I
(D) A-I, B-II, C-IV, D-III

In the following letter series, what is the next term? abcf, bcdg, cdeh, defi, Option:

(A) efij
(B) efgi
(C) efgj
(D) detj

The sequential order of syllogism in Nyaya philosophy is

A. Nigmana
B. Udaharana
C. Hetu
D. Upanaya
E. Pratijna

Choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A)A,E,C,D,B
(B)E,C,B,D, A
(C)E,B,C,D,A
(D)D,A,B,C,E

What is the sequential order of a comprehensible sentence in Nyaya philosophy

A. Akanksha
B. Yogyata
C. Tatparya
D. Sanniddhi

Choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A)D,C,B,A
(B)A,B,D,C
(C)C,D,B,A
(D)D,C,A,B

“To infer rain in the past by perceiving muddy water in the pond’, is Option:

(A) Purvovat anumana
(B) Sesavatanuman
(C) Both Purvovat anuman and Sesavatanuman
(D) Comparison

The fallacy (hetvabhasha) produced in the conclusion due to the repudiation of Sadhya by Hetu is known as Option:

(A) Savyabhichara
(B) Viruddha
(C) Satpratipaksha
(D) Asiddha

Given below are four propositions. Two of them are related in such a way that they cannot be true, although they can be false. Select the code that states those two propositions

A. All men are honest
B. No men are honest
C. Some men are honest
D. Some men are not honest

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and B only
(B) B and C only
(C) C and D only
(D) A and D only

What is the next term in the following letter series? aceg, cegi, egik, gikm Option:

(A) jlor
(B) hjlo
(C) ikmo
(D) ikmq

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A: Substance is self-caused, self-conceived and self-existent.
Reason R: Substance is not caused by other causal sources but is conceived by something else and is also existent on that. In light of the above statements,

choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A: All perceptions seem entirely loose and separate. They are conjoined but not necessarily connected
Reason R: Since the perception of hardness is not necessarily connected with its colour, it can be said that perceptions are loosely connected.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A: If there is a contestation between Sruti and Smriti, Sruti prevails over Smriti
Reason R: Sruti represents the philosophical aspect of the Vedas and Upanishads, while Smriti is an application of the philosophical ideas.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

Quantity and quality of a categorical proposition decide: Option:

(A) Validity
(B) Invalidity
(C) Mood
(D) Figure

Which one of the following decides the figure of a categorical proposition? Option:

(A) Major term
(B) Minor term
(C) Middle term
(D) Copula

Consider the following letter series. What is next of acf, egj, ikn, oqt,

(A) suy
(B) uvy
(C) rwz
(D) uwz

Given below are two prepositions: All philosophers are fallible Socrates is not fallible In the Classical sphere of opposition, which one of the following is the correct answer

(A) Contrary
(C) Subalteration
(D) Subcontrary

Given below is a proposition: ‘Mahatma Gandhi is called the father of the Nation’ What Kind of classical categorical proposition is it?

(A) Universal affirmative
(B) Popular affirmative
(C) Both A and B
(D) Neither A nor B

Which of the following pramanas are accepted by Vaisheshika Philosophy?

A. Pratyasha
B. Anumana
C. Sabda
D. Upamana
E. Arthapatti
F. Anupalabdhi

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and B only
(B) C and D only
(C) E and F only
(D) C and E only

Which of the following are accepted in Buddhism?

B. Apoha
C. Abhava
D. Arthapatti
E. Pratyaksha
F. Sabda

Choose the correct answer from the Options given below
(A) A and B only
(B) C and D only
(C) B and E only
(D) E and F only

What is the nature of a logical argument? Choose the Correct answer from the following:

(A) Justified or Unjustified
(B) True or false
(C) Valid and Invalid
(D) Verifiable and not verifiable

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: There is greater stress laid on the material aspects of inference by the exponent of Nyaya system.
Statement II: There is greater stress laid on the format aspect of the syllogistic expression in western logic.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement 11 are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: The evaluation of an argument involves two steps namely evaluating the link between premises and conclusion and evaluating the truth of the premises.
Statement II: Deductive arguments in which the conclusion actually follows from the premises are said to be valid. and those that also have true premises are said to be sound.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement IT are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

When is a series of terms said to be in the order of increasing extension?

A. When each term in the series (except the first) denotes a class having more members than class denoted by the term preceding it.
B. When the class size gets larger with each successive term.
C. When each term in the series (except the first) denotes a class having less members than the class denoted by the term preceding it.
D. When the class size gets smaller with each successive term

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Only A and B are correct
(B) Only B and D are correct
(C) Only C and D are correct
(D) Only A and D are correct

In case of anumana (inference) identify the sequences of five steps of syllogistic argument according to Nyaya:

A. The mountain has fire
B. The mountain also has smoke accompanied by fire, like kitchen
C. Therefore the mountain has fire
D. Because of smoke
E. Wherever there is smoke, there is fire. as in the kitchen

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A)A,B,D,E,C
(B)A,D,E,C,B
(C)B,.D,E, A,C
(D)A,D,E,B,C

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: Relationship of invariable concomitance (vyapti) can be claimed to exist between two things if they are causally related.
Statement II: Relationship of invariable concomitance can be claimed to exist between two things if they are related as specics-genus.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement 11 are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Which of the following statements correctly apply to inductive arguments?

A. They are neither conclusively valid nor invalid.
B. Adding new premises makes no difference to the argument.
C. Adding new premises may strengthen/weaken the argument.
D. Conclusion follows from premises with absolute necessity.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and D only
(B) A and C only
(C) B and D only
(D) A and B only

Match List I with List II

List I In Square of opposition
A. If ‘No stars are Dull’ is True
B. If ‘some flowers are fragrant’ is True
C. If “All sweets are sugary’ is True
D. If ‘some animals are not mammals’ is True
List II Resultant propositions
I. ‘E” and ‘T’ are Undetermined
II. ‘E’is Falsc and ‘T’ is True
III. “A” and ‘O” are Undetermined
IV. ‘A’ is False; ‘O’ is True

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A)A-IV, B-III, C-II, D-I
(B)A-III, B-II, C-IV, D-I
(C)A-II, B-IV, C-I, D-III
(D)A-I, B-II, C-III, D-IV

Identify the fallacy committed in the argument.

All men who understand women are potentially perfect husbands.
All potentially perfect husbands are men of infinite patience.
Therefore, some men of infinite patience are men who understand women.

Option:
(A) Fallacy of Illicit Major
(B) Fallacy of Illicit Minor
(C) Existential fallacy
(D) Fallacy of Undistributed Middle

In the Nyaya system, what is an inference called when it is based in its middle term being only positively related to the major term?

Option:
(A) Kevatarvayi
(B) Kevala-vyatircki
(C) Anvaya-vyatireki
(D) Vyatirekanvayi

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: In the Nyaya system of inference, the major term (sadhya) can exist without the middle term (hetu).
Statement II: According to the Nvaya system, the middle term (hetu) cannot exist without the major term (sadhyva).

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement IT are false
(C) Statement 1 is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Identify the fallacy committed in the argument: “Since all humans are mortal, the human race must some day come to an end”.

Option:
(A) Fallacy of Amphiboly
(B) Fallacy of Composition
(C) Fallacy of Division
(D) Fallacy of Converse Accident

Identify the fallacy committed in the argument

Some spaniels are not good hunters.
All spaniels are gentle dogs.
Therefore, no gentle dogs are good hunters.

Option:
(A) Fallacy of Exclusive Premises
(B) Fallacy of Illicit Major
(C) Fallacy of llicit Minor
(D) Fallacy of Four Terms

Which of the following pramanas are accepted by the Nyaya School?

A. Pratyaksa
B. Anumana
C. Upamana
D. Sabda
E. Arthapatti

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A, Band D only
(B) A, B and C only
(C) A, B, Cand D only
(D) A, B, D and E only

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A : According to the Nyaya system, the argument “Sound is quality because it is visible is fallacious.”
Reason R : It commits the fallacy of Svarupasidhha.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct and R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

What comes next in the following sequence? 27,4X,7V,11T, ?

Option:
(A) 15P
(B) 16R
(C) 16S
(D) 15Q

Identify the fallacy committed in the argument: “Since you are yourself a meat eater, you have no right to object to my hunting animals for sport”.

Option:
(A) Argument from Ignorance
(D) Argument to Pity

In which of the following steps of inference in the Nyaya syllogism all the three terms stand synthesized?

Option:
(A) Udaharana (example)
(B) Upanaya (application)
(C) Hetu (reason)
(D) Nigmana (conclusion)

Given below are two statements

Statement I: An inference is called kevalanvayi when it is based on a middle term, which is only positively related to the major term.
Statement II: In kevalanvayi, the knowledge of vyapti between the middle and major terms is arrived at only through the method of agreement in presence.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement 1 is correct but Statement 11 is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Which one of the following would be the logical equivalent of “Only citizens can vote”?

Option:
(A) All those who are not citizens too shall vote
(B) All those who are citizens shall vote
(C) All those who can vote are citizens
(D) None but voters are not citizens

Consider the following statements in a square of opposition of propositions and pick the correct answer.

Option:
(A) A’ being given as True; ‘O’ is False
(B) ‘E’ being given as False; ‘T’is False
(C) T being given as True; ‘E’is True
(D) ‘A” be given as False; ‘E’ is True

Senthil said, “This lady is the wife of the grandson of my mother.” Senthil is the only son of his mother and has no sister. Who is Senthil to the lady?

Option:
(A) Husband
(B) Father-in-law
(C) Daughter-in-law
(D) Brother

Given below are two statements

Statement I: Tf two numbers divided by a third number give the same remainder, their difference is exactly divisible by that number.
Statement II: Least common multiple of two or more given numbers is the largest number which is exactly divisible by each of them.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Match List I with List II

List I (Proposition in Square of Opposition)
A. If ‘A’ is False
B. If ‘E’ is False
C. If ‘T is False
D. If ‘O’ is False
List 1 (Resultant)
I. ‘E’ is False;’ I’ is True
II. ‘A’ is True; ‘E’ is True
III. ‘A” and ‘O’ are Undetermined
IV. ‘E’ and T are Undetermined

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A)A-IV, B-III, C-II, D-I
(B)A-III, B-II, C-I, D-IV
(C)A-II, B-IV, C-I, D-III
(D)A-I, B-II, C-III, D-IV

Which of the following is taken to mean inference by elimination, in which the inferred character is the residuum of a process of elimination that excludes other characters?

Option:
(A) Purvavat Anumana
(B) Sheshavat Anumana
(C) Samanyatodrshta
(D) Paksa

Which of the following pertains to fallacy of ambiguity?

Option:
(A) Equivocation
(B) The straw man
(C) Hasty generalization
(D) The red herring

Match List I with List II

List I (Proposition in Square of Opposition )
A. If’A’is True L.
B. If ‘E’ is True IL
C.If T is True IIL.
D. It’O”is True IV.
List II (Resultant Proposition)
‘I’ is false; ‘O’ is True
‘E’ is false; ‘A’ is undetermined
‘E” and ‘T’ is undetermined
‘E’ is false; ‘I’ is True

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A)A-1, B-III, C-II, D-IV
(B)A-II, B-I, C-III, D-IV
(C)A-III, B-II, C-I, D-IV
(D)A-IV, B-I, C-II, D-III

When a middle term does not go further than producing a state of mental oscillation between two opposite views, the case is of:

Option:
(A) Fallacy of Viruddha
(B) Fallacy of Prakaransama
(C) Fallacy of Asiddha
(D) Fallacy of Savyabhichara

The Fallacy committed in the argument “All textbooks are books intended for careful study. Some reference books are books intended for careful study. Therefore, some reference books are textbooks.” is

Option:
(A) Illicit Major
(B) Illicit Minor
(C) Fallacy of four Terms
(D) Undistributed Middle

In an illustration of inference that the ‘Sun moves, like other moving objects its position changes’ represents

Option:
(A) Piirvavat Anumana
(B) Sesaval Anumana
(C) Samanyatodrsta
(D) Pakshta

Pick the incorrect statement

Option:
(A) ‘Truth’ and ‘Falsewood’ may be predicated of propositions but never of arguments
(B) In the case of deductive argument, the technical terms ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ are used
(C) Inductive arguments are neither valid nor invalid but evaluated as better or worse
(D) The conclusion of a deductive argument follows from its premises necessarily

Consider ‘E’ proposition as True and ‘T’ as False in a square of opposition of proposition and pick the correct answer from the options given below.

Option:
(A) ‘A’is True; ‘A’ is True
(B) ‘O’ is False; ‘E’ is False
(C) T is False; ‘E’is True
(D) ‘0’ is Undetermined

Ans: C

Pick the correct code.

Option:
(A) Middle term must be distributed at least once in the premises of a syllogistic argument
(B) A valid syllogistic argument cannot have two negative premises
(C) With two particular premises in a syllogistic argument, a universal conclusion can be drawn
(D) With one negative premise in a syllogistic argument, the conclusion is negative

Ans: Not Given

Name the fallacy committed in the statements below:
“All text books are books intended for careful study. Some reference books are books intended for careful study. Therefore, some reference books are text books.”

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Existential Fallacy
(B) Undistributed Middle
(C) Affirmative conclusion from Negative Premise
(D) Exclusive Premises

Ans: B

I see a piece of fragrant sandalwood’ would correctly represent:

Option:
(A) Samanyalakshna
(B) Jianalakshana
(C) Yogaja
(D) Nirvikalpa Pratyaksa

Ans: B

Which of the following is NOT a constituent-member of the Indian syllogistic argument?

Option:
(A) Upanaya
(B) Udaharana
(C) Samsaya
(D) Hetu

Ans: C

M is the brother of N, N is the daughter of O and P is the father of M, then how is O related to P?

Option:
(A) Brother
(B) Sister
(C) Husband
(D) Wife

With reference to square of opposition in Logic: Match List I with List II

List I
A. If ‘A’ is False
B. If ‘E’is True
C. If Tis False
D. If ‘O’is True
List II
I. ‘T”is False; ‘O’ is True
II. ‘A’ is False; ‘I’ is Undetermined
III. ‘E’ and ‘T” are Undetermined
IV. ‘A’ is False; ‘T is True

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A)A-I, B-III, C-IV, D-II
(B)A-II, B-I, C-III, D-IV
(C)A-III, B-I, C-IV, D-II
(D)A-IV, B-II, C-III, D-I

When the middle term in some cases relates to the major and in other cases relates to the absence of the major, it is said to be the fallacy of

Option:
(C) Anumpsanhari Vyabhichara
(D) Viruddha

Name the fallacy committed in “All chocolate eclairs are fattening foods because all chocolate eclairs are rich desserts, and some fattening foods are not rich desserts”

Option:
(A) Undistributed Middle
(B) Illicit Major
(C) Affirmative Premises; Negative Conclusion
(D) Negative Premises; Affirmative Conclusion

The middle term is related to the major term (Sadhya) as its cause and is antecedent to it. We pass from the knowledge of the antecedent cause to that of the consequent effect. It is known as

Option:
(A) Purvavat Anumana
(B) Sesavat Anumana
(C) Samanyatodrsta
(D) Parartha Anumana

Pick the incorrect statement

Option:
(A) Truth and falsehood may be predicted of propositions but never of arguments
(B) In the case of a deductive argument, the technical terms ‘correct’ and ‘incorrect’ are used
(C) Inductive arguments are neither valid nor invalid but evaluated as better or worse
(D) The conclusion of a deductive argument follows from its premises necessarily

“Wherever there is smoke, fire is also present”. Which of the following statements is true with reference to the above statement according to Nyaya philosophy?

A. Smoke cannot exist without fire also being present there
B. Fire causes smoke
C. Universal fireness causes universal smokeness
D. It asserts that there is a relation of concomitance between smoke and fire

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Only A and D are correct
(B) Only A and B are correct
(C) Only C and D are correct
(D) Only B and D are correct

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: The terms “Valid® and ‘invalid’ apply to arguments.
Statement II: The terms ‘Cogent’ and ‘Non-cogent™ apply to statements.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Consider the serics — “animal, mammal. feline, tiger”. Which of the following statement/s is/are true with reference to this series

A. It is in order of increasing intension
B. It is in order of increasing extension
C. It is in order of decreasing intension
D. It is in order of decreasing extension

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Only B is correct
(B) Only B and C are correct
(C) Only A and D are correct
(D) Only C is correct

All people who live in Varanasi are people who drink tea, and all people who drink tea are people who like it. We may conclude, then, that all people who live in Varanasi are people who like it. What is wrong with this argument?

A. There is equivocation on the term “People who like it.”
B. It commits existential fallacy
C. It commits fallacy of exclusive premises.
D. It commits fallacy of four terms.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Only A is correct
(B) Only A and C are correct
(C) Only A and B are correct
(D) Only A and D are correct

In which of the five steps of inference (anumana) in the Nvaya syllogism all the three terms stand synthesized?

Option:
(A) Upanaya
(B) Nigamana
(C) Udaharana
(D) Hetu

No one has ever been able to prove the existence of extra sensory perception. We must therefore conclude that extra-sensory perception is a myth”. Which one of the following fallacy is committed in the above statement?

Option:
(A) Slippery slope
(B) Appeal to Ignorance
(C) Hasty generalization
(D) Red herring

Which of the following types of inference is used when one infers rainfall on the hills from floods?

Option:
(A) Parvavata
(B) Scsavata
(C) Samanyatodrsta
(D) Samanyalaksanapratyasatti

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: The formal fallacies of Aristotle are based on the violations of the formal structure of the whole syllogism.
Statement II: Fallacies given by the Naivayikas rest on the violations of the formal conditions of the valid middle term or reason.

In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Which among the following type of relations are considered by Nyfiva system as necessary relation between middle and major terms?

A. Species — species relation
B. The causal relation
C. Member — class relation
D. Species — genus relation

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and D only
(B) B and C only
(C) A, B and C only
(D) B, C and D only

This barrel contains 100 apples Three apples selected at random were found to be ripe. Therefore probably all 100 apples are ripe. Which type of argument is exemplified in the above set of statements?

Option:
(A) Inductive
(B) Deductive
(C) Hypothetical Syllogism
(D) Modus Ponens

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: If we infer “Socrates is a man, because he is mortal” we commit the fallacy named as sadharana by Classical Indian Logicians.
Statement II: An inference is fallacious if the middle term is found to be common to both the major term and its opposite. Such fallacy is named sadharana.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

The space program deserves increased expenditure in the vears ahead. Not only does the national defense depend upon it. but the program will more than pay for itself in terms of technological snipotts. Further more, at current funding levels the program cannot fulfill its anticipated potential”. What is the conclusion in the above argument?

Option:
(A) The national defense depends upon the space program.
(B) The space program deserves increased spending in the years ahead.
(C) The space program will more than pay for itself in terms of technological snipoffs.
(D) At existing funding levels the space program cannot fulfil its anticipated potential.

All mortals are men.
Socrates is mortal
Therefore Socrates is a man.

Which of the following statements are true of the above argument?
A. Above arguments is sound.
B. Above argument is valid.
C. Above argument is fallacious.
D. Above argument commits the fallacy of undistributed middle.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Only A and B are correct
(B) Only A is correct
(C) Only C is correct
(D) Only C and D are correct

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: “Every thinkable is nameable, because it is thinkable™. This is a fallacious argument because there can be no inference where the minor and the middle terms are the same.
Statement II: The fallacy committed in this statement is called the extra-ordinary (asadharana) because the middle term does not belong to anything other than the present minor term.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: Naivayikas define upadhi (conditionality) as the necessary relation of something only with major term but not with middle term.
Statement II: According to Naiyayikas wherever the major term is only conditionally true, it is invalid and the conclusion drawn from it cannot be valid.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Looking at a photo of a man, Ravi said, “His mother is the wife of my Father’s son. I have no brothers and sisters.” At whose photo was Ravi looking?

Option:
(A) His cousin
(B) His son
(C) His uncle
(D) His nephew

Ans: B

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A: The argument “Everything is nameable because it is knowledge” is fallacious.
Reason R: There is nothing that is not nameable and I cannot find a place where, because of the absence of the major term, the middle term is also absent.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

Ans: A

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: The terms ‘true’ and “false” apply to arguments.
Statement II: The terms ‘true’ and ‘false’ apply to statements.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: D

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: The fallacy of contradictory middle (viruddha) occurs in an argument when the middle term is found both where the major is found and where it is not found.
Statement 1I: The fallacy of contradictory middle (viruddha) is committed in an argument when the middle term is found only where major term is absent.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement 1 is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: D

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A: For Naiyayikas, logic is not formalized and divorced from existence.
Reason R: Naiyayika’s interest in logic is for finding out the truth about the existent world, but not merely for finding out the instrument of thought for their own sake.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

Ans: A

“Socialized medicine is not recommended because it would result in reduction of the overall quality of medical care. In addition, it might well bankrupt the federal treasury. This is the whole case against socialized medicine. “What is the conclusion in the above argument?

Option:
(A) Socialized medicine is not recommended.
(B) Socialized medicine would result in reduction of the overall quality of medical care
(C) Socialized medicine might bankrupt the federal treasury.
(D) There are overwhelming arguments against socialized medicine.

Ans: A

In the letter series B,H,R,F,…. What is the next letter?

Option:
(A)L
(B)Z
(C)P
(D)X

Which of the following options are true regarding inference with reference to classical Indian system of logic?

A. It is deductive
B. It is inductive
C. It has to be formally valid
D. It has to be materially true

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A, B and D only
(B) A, B and C only
(C) A, C and D only
(D) A, B, C and D only

The collection of all the objects to which a term may correctly be applied is called:

A. The intension of that term
B. Connotation of that term
C. The extension of that term
D. Denotation of that term

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and B only
(B) B and C only
(C) A and D only
(D) C and D only

The Daily News carried an article this morning about some local teenagers who were arrested on charges of drug possession. Teenagers these days are nothing but a bunch of junkies”. Which fallacy is committed in the above statement?

Option:
(A) Red Herring
(B) Strawman
(C) Argument against the person (ad hominem)
(D) Hasty Generalization

Given below are two statements: One is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R:

Assertion A: The Naiyayikas did not separate treatment of the inductive methods, as the western logicians have done.
Reason R : According to Nyaya school universal propositions are obtained from perception itself by one of the forms of extra-ordinary perception.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is true but R is false
(D) A is false but R is true

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: Sesavata is the inference of what remains (sesa) by elimination of the irrelevant.
Statement II: Sesavata inference corresponds to the method of residues in western inductive logic.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Given below are two statements

Statement 1: Context of discovery involves non-rational, intuitive processes while context of justification is based on logical processes.
Statement II: The process of hypothesis generation doesn’t strictly follow rigorous logical reasoning.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Match List I with List II

List I Contexts
A. Context of discovery
B. Inductive reasoning
C. Abductive reasoning
D. Context of justification
List II Examples
I. From the particular to a generalisation
II. Testing or verifying the hypothesis
III. Hypothesis generation
IV. Inference based on some observations

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A-II, B-I, C-IV, D-III
(B) A-IV, B-III, C-I, D-II
(C) A-I, B-III, C-II, D-IV
(D) A-III, B-I, C-IV, D-II

Analogies have been used for which of the following purposes?

A. Inductive reasoning
B. Deductive reasoning
C. Description
D. Explanation

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A, B and C only
(B) B, C and D only
(C) A, C and D only
(D) B, C and D only

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A: Naiyayikas do not accept non-apprehension (annpalabdhi) as a distinct source of knowledge (pramana).
Reason R: According to Naiyayikas, non-apprehension can be covered under inference (anumana).

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is true but R is false
(D) A is false but R is true

Match List I with List II

List In Square of opposition
A. If ‘Some flowers are pink’ is False
B. If ‘No girls are birds’ is True
C. If ‘Some boys are not tall’ is False
D. It “All chocolates are sweet’ is True
List II Resultant
I. T is False; ‘O” is True
II. ‘A” is False; ‘E’ is True
III. T is True; ‘O’ is False
IV. ‘E’is False; ‘T is true

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A-II, B-III, C-I, D-IV
(B) A-III, B-IV, C-II, D-I
(C) A-II, B-I, C-IV, D-III
(D) A-IV, B-II, C-I, D-III

Identify the fallacy committed in the argument below.

Some good actors are not strong men.
All professional wrestlers are strong men.
Therefore, all professional wrestlers are good actors.

Option:
(A) Fallacy of Undistributed Middle
(B) Fallacy of Illicit Major
(C) Fallacy of Illicit Minor
(D) Fallacy of drawing affirmative conclusions from negative premise

Which of the following statements is/ are true?

A. The terms ‘true’ and ‘false’ apply to arguments.
B. The terms ‘true’ and false’ apply to statements.
C. The terms ‘valid’ and invalid’ apply to arguments.
D. The terms ‘cogent’ and ‘non-cogent’ apply to statements.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and C only
(B) B and C only
(C) C and D only
(D) A and D only

Given below are two statements

Statement I: Two contrary statements cannot both be false.
Statement II: Two contrary statements cannot both be true.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Identify the fallacy committed in the argument

No tragic actors are happy men.
Some comedians are not happy men.
Therefore, some comedians are not tragic actors.

Option:
(A) Fallacy of Undistributed Middle
(B) Fallacy of Illicit Major
(C) Fallacy of Exclusive Premises
(D) Existential fallacy

Identify the correct sequence of Inference from beginning to end, according to the Nyaya system.

A. Udaharana
B. Hetu
C. Pratyjiia
D. Nigamana
E. Upanaya

Choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A)C,A,B,E,D
(B)B,A,D,C,E
(C)B,A,C,D,E
(D)C,B,A,E,D

Given below are two statements

Statement I: In the Nyava system, inference is made from the particular to the particular through the Universal.
Statement II: In the Nyaya system, inference is made from the Universal to the Universal through the particular.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II arc correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Which one of the following options describes a valid deductive argument with all the premises
and the conclusion as True?

(A) Probable Argument
(B) Improbable Argument
(C) Unsound Argument
(D) Sound Argument

Given below are two statements

Statement I: Two subcontrary propositions cannot both be false.
Statement II: Two subcontrary propositions must both be true

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement IT are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Have you stopped stealing from your parents?” Which one of the following fallacies is
committed in this argument?

(A) Appeal to Ignorance
(B) Appeal to Pity
(C) Complex Question
(D) Begging the Question

Which of the following statements are true with reference to Vyapti (concomitance) according to
the Nyaya system?

1. It expresses-the relation between two individuals objects only
2. It expresses the relation between the classes of individuals
3. It can be said to exist between two things if they are related as cause and effect.
4. Tt can be said to exist between two things if they are related as species and genus

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) 1, 3 and 4 only
(B) 3 and 4 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 2,3 and 4 only

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R

Assertion A: According to the Nyaya system, when one observes smoke at a particular locus, one
could infer that the same locus has the presence of fire too.
Reason R: Fire causes smoke, and is always accompanied by smoke.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is true but R is false
(D) A is false but R is true

Given below are two statements, one is labelled as Assertion A and the other is labelled as Reason R:-

Assertion A: Denotation cannot be used to define words that have an empty extension
Reason R: Although connotation determines denotation, denotation does not determine connotation

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of A
(B) Both A and R are correct but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(C) A is correct but R is not correct
(D) A is not correct but R is correct

Identify the fallacy committed in the argument:-

All cats are animals.
All dogs are animals.
Therefore, all dogs are cats.

Option:
(A) Fallacy of Four Terms
(B) Fallacy of the Undistributed Middle Term
(C) Fallacy of the Exclusive Premises
(D) Existential Fallacy

Identify the fallacy committed in the following argument:-

“American Indians are disappearing.
That man is an American Indian.
Therefore, that man is disappearing.”

Option:
(A) Fallacy of Composition
(B) Fallacy of Division
(C) Fallacy of Accident
(D) Fallacy of Converse Accident

The condition that there should be an absence of contradiction in the relation of the objects denoted in the combination of words, for the sentence to be significant is known as which one of the following

Option:
(A) Akarksa
(B) Yogyata
(C) Sannidhi
(D) Tatparya

Given below are two statements:-

Statement I: A vyapti between two terms of equal extension is called Samavyapti.
Statement I: The relation between fire and smoke is that of Samavyapti.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement I are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement IJ are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Showing the man in a photo, Kavita said, “He is the brother of my uncle’s daughter”. How is the man
related to Kavita?

(A) Nephew
(B) Cousin
(C) Uncle
(D) Son

In the context of uses of language, which of the following is the fallacy that pertains to the
relationship between a person’s beliefs and his circumstances?

(A) Argumentum and Baculum (force)

If ‘Some members are not voters’ is false in a square of the opposition of proposition, which of the
following code can be correctly picked

A. ‘All members are voters’ is false
B. ‘Some members are voters’ is true
C. ‘All members are voters’ is true
D. ‘No members are voters’ is true

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and D only
(B) A and B only
(C) B and C only
(D) C and D only

Which of the following codes correctly represents the figure and mood of the argument?

No self-confident men are religious
Therefore, no religious men are businessmen

Choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) AEE -T
(B) AEE – II
(C) AEE – III
(D) AEE – IV

The knowing self knows objects through the instrumentality of the sense organs (Indriyas) but the
existence of Indriya is proved by

(A) Anumana Pramana
(B) Sabda pramana
(C) Arthapatti Pramana
(D) Upamana Pramana

Which form of knowledge is NOT derived through the instrumentality of other knowledge?

(A) Perception
(B) Inference
(C) Word-testimony
(D) Comparison

Advertising “Testimonials” are frequent instances of this fallacy

Option:
(B) Argumentum ad Misericordiam (appeal to pity)

If ‘some women are writers is true, which of the following codes are CORRECT

1.‘All women are writers’ false
2.’All women are writers’ is true
3.’No women are writers’ is false
4.‘Some women are not writers’ is undetermined

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 2 and 3 only
(C) 3 and 4 only
(D) 2 and 4 only

Which of the following code correctly represents the figure and mood of the argument?

No musicians are Italians
All barbers are Musicians
Therefore, No barbers are Italians

Choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) E A E – I
(B) E A E- II
(C) E A E- III
(D) E A E- IV

If a jar is temporarily removed from its locus the non-existence of the jar on the floor is

Option:
(A) Upamana (Comparison)
(B) Arthapatti (Implication)
(C) Anumana (Inference)
(D) Anuplabdhi (Non-cognition)

The knowing self knows objects through the instrumentality of the Indriyas and the existence of the Indriya, is proved by

Option:
(A) Arthapatti
(B) Anuplabdhi
(C) Anumana
(D) Upamana

Match List I with List II

List I
A. Sannidhi
B. Tatparya
C. Yogyata
D. Akanksa
List II
I. Mutual fitness and compatibility of the constituent words in a sentence
II. Expectancy between the words different in a sentences
IlI. Propinquity between the different words in a sentence
IV. Meaning intended by the sentence

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A)A-II, B-I, C- III, D-IV
(B) A-IV, B-II, C- III, D-I
(C)A-II, B-I, C-IV, D-III
(D) A – Ill, B- IV, C-I, D-II

Name the fallacy committed in the argument.

“All household pets are domestic animals.
No unicorns are domestic animals.
Therefore, some unicorns are not household pets.”

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Undistributed Middle
(B) Affirmative conclusion from Negative Premises
(C) Exclusive fallacy
(D) Existential fallacy

Consider ‘A’ proposition as ‘True’ and ‘False’ respectively, in a square of the opposition of
propositions, then which one of the following is correct?

(A) ‘O’ is True and ‘T’ is False
(B) ‘E’ is Undetermined and ‘O’ is False
(C) ‘O’ is Undetermined and ‘T’ is False
(D) T is True and ‘E’ is False

In which of the following forms of knowledge there cannot be any predication of the object in terms of the subject-predicate relation?

(A) Nirvikalpaka Pratyaksha
(B) Savikalpaka Pratyaksha
(C) Samanylaksana
(D) Yogaja

Match List I with List II

List I
A. If ‘A’ is True
B. If ‘E’ is True
C. Tf T’ is False
D. If ‘O’ is False
List II
I. ‘E’ is True; ‘O’ is True
II. ‘O’ is False; ‘E’ is False
III. ‘A’ is False; ‘T’ is False
IV. E’ is False; ‘T’ is True

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A)A-IV, B-II, C -III, D -I
(B) A-III, B-I, C -II, D -IV
(C) A-II, B-Ill, C-I, D-IV
(D) A-I, B-II, C Ill, D-IV

Match List I with List II

List I
A. Ashrayasiddha
B. Svarupasiddha
C. Vyapyatvasiddha
D. Anupasamhari
List II
I. Sound is eternal because it is visible
II. All real are momentory; sound is real; sound is momentory
III. All objects are eternal because they are knowable
IV. Sky lotus is fragrant because it belongs to the class of lotus

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A)A-III, B-II, C-IV, D-I
(B) A-II, B-IV, C-I, D-III
(C)A-IV, B-I, C-II, D-III
(D) A -I, B-III, C -II, D-IV

Name the fallacy committed in the argument below

“All men who understand women are potentially perfect husbands.
All potentially perfect husbands are men of infinite patience.
Therefore, some men of infinite patience are men who understand women.”

(A) Tlicit major
(B) Undistributed middle
(C) Existential fallacy
(D) Exclusive premises

The middle term of the inference is related to the major term neither as a cause nor as an effect but because they are uniformly related to each other in our experience, is known as:

(A) Purvavat
(B) Sheshavat
(C) Samanyatodrshta
(D) Pakshdharmata

Pick the correct option to represent the given argument

All artists are egoists
Some artists are paupers
Therefore, some paupers are egoists

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A II – I figure
(B) A II – II figure
(C) A Il – IlI figure
(D) A II – IV figure

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: According to Nyaya philosophy an argument proceeds only on those issues that are completely unknown.
Statement II: According to Nyaya philosophy an argument does not proceed on those issues that are well established.

In the light of the above statements. Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

With reference to Nyaya philosophy. which of the following statements is true?

(A) The linga or the middle term is not the Karana or operative cause of inference.
(B) The middle term may be a thing of the present but not of the past or the future.
(C) The middle term can function in an inference when past or future.
(D) The middle term can lead to the conclusion apart from the knowledge of vyapti or the universal relation between it and the major term.

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: Mimamsakas and Vedantins agree with the Naiyayikas that the syllogism consists of five
members or propositions.
Statement II: Mimamsakas and Vedantins agree with the Natyayikas that the syllogism is necessary only for pararthanumana or demonstrate inference and not for svarthanumana or inference for oneself.

In the light of the above statements, Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: A formal fallacy is one that may be identified through mere inspection of the form or structure of an argument.
Statement II: Formal fallacies are found only in deductive arguments that have identifiable forms.

In the light of the above statements, Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement | is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Whoever thrusts a knife into another person should be arrested. Surgeons thrust a knife into another person when operating. Therefore surgeons should be arrested”’. Which fallacy is committed in the following argument?

(A) Hasty generalization
(B) Fallacy of accident
(C) Red Herring
(D) Appeal to unqualified authority

Which of the following statements is true regarding two contrary propositions?

(A) They can both be true
(B) The truth of one entails the falsity of the other
(C) They cannot both be false
(D) The falsity of one entails the truth of the other

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: An informal fallacy is one that may be identified through mere inspection of the form or structure of an argument.
Statement II: Formal fallacy is one that can be detected only through analysis of the content of the argument.

In the light of the above statements, Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement [is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement | is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Which of the following statements about blogs in network communication is True?

(A) The content of a blog can be edited by anyone.
(B) A blog is a synchronous communication system that allows people to chat in real-time.
(C) A blog consists of posts in reverse chronological order.
(D) A blog is a history of web pages that you have visited, maintained by an ISP.

Which fallacy is committed in the argument — “Sound is a quality because it 1s visible”?

(A) Asryasiddha
(B) Vyapyatvasiddha
(C) Svarupasiddha

Which kind of inference is illustrated when one argues that sound must be a quality because it cannot be a substance or an activity or a relation and so on?

(A) Sesavata
(B) Purvavata
(C) Samanyaodrsta
(D) Both Purvavata and Samanyatodrsta

Under which of the following conditions an inference may be categorized as Kevalanvayl?

(A) When it is based on middle term which is only positively related to the major term
(B) When it is based on middle term which is only negatively related to the major term
(C) When it is based on middle term which is both positively and negatively related to the major term
(D) When middle term and major term have the relationship of identity (tadatmava) between them

According to Nyaya the argument — ‘Sound is eternal because it is produced’ commits, which of the following fallacy?

(B) Nature of the opposable reason (Satpratipakesa )
(C) Unestablished reason (asiddha)
(D) Nature of unopposable reason (a Satpratipaksa )

With reference to pramana theory both on dialogical and philosophical discourse, which of the following options are correct?

A. It furnishes the required grounding for the thesis to be backed up by a certain means of knowledge.
B. It provides the necessary platform to incisely analyze the proposed thesis.
C. It enables us to succinctly summarize the observations, that stem out of analysis, in the form of anumana or nyaya prayoga.
D. It enables the debater to elicit acceptance of his/her own belief system on the basis of formal validity alone.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and B only
(B) A and C only
(C) A, B and C only
(D) A, B and D only

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: The works in Nyaya- Sastra discuss the aggregate causal conditions and the process involved in inferential cognition.
Statement II: The works in Nyaya -Sastra do not however dwell upon analysis of the factors that help to assess and decide the formal validity of a judgement.

In the light of the above statements. Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(C) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(D) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Famous Singer Himanshu says that Coffechill chocolates are groovy. We can only conclude that Cotfeehill chocolates are groovy indeed”. Which of the fallacy is committed in the above statement?

(A) Hasty Generalisation
(B) Appeal to unqualified authority
(C) Shippery slope
(D) Missing the point

The set of attributes shared by all and only those objects to which a general term refers, is called:

A. The intension of that term
B. Connotation of that term
C. The extension of that term
D. Denotation of that term

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) A and B only
(B) C and D only
(C) A and C only
(D) A and D only

According to Natyavikas we ascertain the relation of universal concomitance between x and y:

A. We can determine the relation only if we can determine the relation of essential identity between x and y
B. By perceiving that in all cases the presence of x is accompanied by the presence of y
C. We can determine the relation only if we can determine the relation of cause and effect between x and y
D. By not perceiving any instance where the presence of x is not accompanied by the presence of y or
vice-versa

Choose the correct answer from the options given below
(A) A and C only
(B) D and C only
(C) B and D only
(D) A, B and C only

Match List I with List II.

List I
A. Vyapti
B. Linga
D. Paksa
List II
I. The property being inferred
II. Locus of hetu and Sadhya
III. Sign or reason
IV. Universal concomitance

Choose the correct answer from the option given below:
(A) A-II, B-III, C-I, D-IV
(B) A-II, B-I, C-IV, D-III
(C) A-III, B-II, C-I, D-IV
(D) A-IV, B-III, C-II, D-I

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: According to Classical Indian Logic the fallacies(hetvabhasa) are not errors of inference, but rather hindrances to inference.
Statement II: A fallacy is really a “seeming reason or mark” (hetvabhasa), which, if recognized, would prevent the inferential cognition from arising.

In the light of the above statements, Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

‘All radically egalitarian societies are societies that do not preserve individual liberties’’. Which of
the following statements is true with reference to the above statement?

(A) “No radically egalitarian societies are societies that preserve individual liberties’’ is obverse of the
given statement and it is logically equivalent.
(B) “‘No radically egalitarian societies are societies that preserve individual liberties** is obverse of the
given statement and it is not logically equivalent.
(C) “‘Some radically egalitarian societies are societies that preserve individual liberties’’ is converse of
the given statement and it is logically equivalent.
(D) “*Some radically egalitarian societies are not societies that preserve individual liberties”’ is converse of the given statement and it is logically equivalent.

(A) One is denial or negation of the other
(B) If they can both be true but cannot both be false
(C) If they have different subject and predicate term and differ from each other in both quality and quantity
(D) If they have the same subject and predicate terms but differ from each other only in quantity but not in quality

Which one of the following sources of knowledge (pramana) in classical Indian Philosophy is based on similarity of the unobserved object with a known object?

(A) Arthapatti
(B) Anumana
(C) Upamana
(D) Unuplabdhi

What is the correct sequence of steps in case of inference according to Indian Logic?

A. Statement of similarity/applicability of the example to case in consideration (upanaya)
B. Statement of Reason (hetu)
C. Affirmation of the thesis as proved (nigmana)
D. Statement of thesis (Pratijna)
E. Giving an example of the underlying rule (udaharana)

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) D, E, A, C, B
(B) D, C, B, A, E
(C) D, B, E, A, C
(D) D, E, A, B, C

Which of the following schools of Classical Indian Philosophy reduce Saba pramana(verbal authority) to inference?

A. Nayaya
B. Vaisesikas
C. Buddhists
D. Mimamsa
E. Carvaka/Lokayata

Given below are two statements

Statement I: According to classical Indian Logic the psychological sequence also corresponds to the logical sequence.
Statement II: The logical structure represents not how we ought to infer, but how, as a matter of fact, we do infer.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(A) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(B) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(C) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(D) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

In Classical Square of Opposition, if ‘Some S is not P’ is true then which of the following could be immediately inferred from it?

A. ‘Some S is P’ is false
B. ‘All S is P’ is false
C. ‘No S is P’ is undetermined
D. ‘Some S is P’ is undetermined
E. ‘All S is P’ is undetermined

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A, C and E only
2. B, C and D only
3. C, D and E only
4. A, B and C only

Ans: C

Which of the following fallacy is a result of defective induction?

1. Fallacy of Composition
2. False Cause
3. Begging the Question
4. Irrelevant Conclusion

Ans: C

Given below are two statements

Statement I: “To slow a beast, you break its limbs. To slow a nation you break its people.”­ is an example of analogical argument.
Statement II: “To slow a beast, you break its limbs. To slow a nation you break its people”­ is an example of nonargumentative use of analogy.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: D

Given below are two statements

Statement I: Classical Indian logicians (Naiy?yikas) define Upam?na (Comparison) as the cognition of the new object through similarity, known by another means of cognition.
Statement II: Naiy?yikas consider upam?na as a type of inductive reasoning and therefore view it as a type of inference (anum?na) only.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: B

Given below are two statements

Statement I: According to Classical Indian School of Logic, the method of induction is used to affirm the major premise, since generality or universality cannot be perceived.
Statement II: Classical Indian Logicians give separate treatment of the inductive method.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: B

Which of the followin propositions is obverse and logically equivalent to the proposition ‘No umpires are partisans’?

1. No non-umpires are non-partisans,
2. All non-partisans aré umpires,
3. Some umpires are non-partisans.
4. All umpires are non-partisans.

Given below are two statements –

Statement I : Conversion is an inference that proceeds by interchanging the subject and predicate terms of the proposition.
Statement II : All conversions are valid inferences

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement l is true but Statement II is false
4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Which logical informal fallacy is committed in the following statement- “The Beatles were the best rock group of the 1960s since they sold more records than any other rock band’.

1. Appeal to Majority
2. Diversion
3. Begging the Question
4. Equivocation

Which of the following statements are true regarding logic?

(A) Aristotelian syllogism is deductive.
(B) Nyaya syllogism is deductive.
(C) Aristotelian syllogism is formal.
(D) Nyaya syllogism is formal.
(E) Nyaya syllogism 1s inductive.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. A B,C. D Only
2. A B.C.D E
3. A. C and E Only
4. A.B. Cand E Only

Which of the following is true regarding Upamana as a means of knowledge according to
Nyaya school?

(A) It is knowledge derived from comparison.
(B) Tt roughly corresponds to analogy.
(C) It is defined as knowledge of the relation between a word and its denotation,
(D) Itis a kind of anumana (inference),

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. A B Cand D
2. A and B Only
3. A, B and C Only
4. A B and D Only

In a coding scheme the word ‘STATEMENT’ is written as ‘TNEMETATS’. In the same coding scheme, how the word ‘POLITICAL’ shall be coded?

1. LAICTIOLP
2. LACITILOP
3. LACTIILOP
4. LACTILIOP

In the number 455 is divided in the ratio of 4:3, then the two parts of 455 shall be respectively?

1. 260, 195
2. 230, 205
3. 265, 190
4. 255, 200

Two students A and B are ranked 9″ and 15 respectively from the top in a class of 37 students. What will be thei ranks (A & B respectively) from bottom in the class?

1. 25, 29
2. 24, 28
3. 29, 25
4. 28, 24

A boy goes 10 km in the north direction from his school. From there he turns left and goés 15 km, and again turns left and goes 10 km, How far is the boy from his school and in which direction from schoal?

1. 10 km and in North Direction
2. 15 km and in South Direction
3. 10 km and in West Direction
4. 15 km and in West Direction

After getting two successive discounts. a shirt with a list price of Rs. 150 is available at
Rs,105. Ifthe second discount is 12.5%, find the first discount?

1. 15%
2. 20%
3. 25%
4. 17%

If some men aré violent’ is given as false which of the following could he immediately inferred from it?

(A) ‘No men are violent is undetermined.
(B) ‘Some men are not violent is true
(C) ‘No men are violent is true
(D) ‘All men are violent’ is false

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :

1. B, C, D Only
2. A, B, D Only
3. A and D Only
4. A and C Only

The universe must be spherical in form since all the constituent parts of the universe. stars and planets ete. are spherical in form.” Which fallacy is committed in the above argument?

1. Begging the Question
2. Fallacy of Composition
3. Fallacy of Accident
4. Hasty Generalisation

Given below are two statements :

Statement I : In classical logic, the universal proposition implies the truth of its
corresponding particular proposition.
Statement II : Two propositions that cannot both be true and cannot both be false are
called contraries.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
4. Statement l is false but Statement II is true

Match List I with List Il:

List I (Type of Inference)
(A) Sartha anumana
(B) Pararth anumana
(C) Kevalanvayl anumana
(D) Kevalavvativeki anumana
List II (Deseription)
(I) Middle term is always and only negatively related to the Major term.
(II) The terms agree only in presence. there being no instance of their agreement in absence
(III) No formal statement of the different members of inference
(IV) Presented in language and has to be done only ta convince others

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. A-II, B-I, C-III, D-IV
2. A-III, B-IV, C-I, D-II
3. A-III, B-IV, C-II, D-I
4. A-IV, B-III, C-II, D-I

Which of the following are essential characteristics of the middle term according to classical Indian Logicians:

(A) It must be present in minor term
(B) It must be present in all positive instances in which the major term is present.
(C) It must be absent in all negative instances in which the major term is absent.
(D) It must be in compatiable with the minor term.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. A, B Only
2. B, C Only
3. A, B, C Only
4. A, B, C, D Only

In a certain coding scheme ‘TEACHER’ is written as “VGCEJGT. How the word ‘CHILDREN’ shall be written in that scheme?

A. EJKNFTGP
B. EJNKTFGP
C. EJNKFTPG
D. EJKNTFPG

Ans: A

If the statement ‘some plants are carnivorous’ is given as true, then which of the following could be immediately inferred from it:

(A) ‘All plants are carnivorous’ is undetermined
(B) ‘All plants are carnivorous’ is true
(C) ‘Some plants are not carnivorous’ is undetermined
(D) ‘No plants are carnivorous’ is false

Choose the correet answer from the options given below :
A. B C D only
B. B and C only
C. B and D only
D. A C D only

Ans: D

Most people in our community think that movie ABZ is pornographic. Therefore movie ABZ is legally pornographic’. Which of the following fallacy is committed in this argument?

A. Red Herring

Ans: B

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: ‘No S\$ is P’ is contrary to ‘All S is P’.
Statemet II: ‘Some § is P’ is contrary to ‘No § is P’.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
A. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
B. Both Statement I and Statement II aré false
C. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
D. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: C

Which of the following steps of inference corresponds to application (upanaya) according to
Classical Indian Logicians?

A. This hill has smoke which is invariably associated with fire
B. ‘The hill has fire
C. Whatever has smoke has fire, e.g. an oven
D. Because it has smoke

Ans: A

If the letters of the word ‘DELHI’ are coded as ‘C C I D D’, then in the same coding scheme, how the word ‘BOMBAY shall be ended?

A. AXMJVS
B. AMXJVS
C. AMJXVS
D. AMXJSV

Ans: C

If the statement “All women are honest” is given as true, what could be immediately inferred from the following?

(A) ‘No women are honest’ is false
(B) ‘Some women are not honest’ is true
(C) ‘Some women are not honest’ is false
(D) ‘Some women are honest’ is true

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
A. A and B only
B. A B D only
C. A C D only
D. A B C only

Ans: C

Killing is wrong. Abortion is killing. Therefore abortion is wrong”. Which of the following fallacy is committed in this argument?

A. Fallacy of Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
C. Fallacy of Appeal to Emotion
D. Fallacy of Equivocation

Ans: D

In square of opposition which one of the following is contradictory of ‘All S is P?

A. All S is Q
B. Some S is not P
C. No S is P
D. Some S is P

Ans: B

Which of the following are admitted by the Naiyayikas (Indian Logicians) as kinds of
Inferences?

(A) Inference of the effect from the cause
(B) Inference of the cause from the effect
(C) Inference from knowledge of similarity between two kinds of objects
(D) Inference from observation for general inseparability

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
A. A B C only
B. A B D only
C. A and B only
D. A and D only

Ans: B

Given below are two statements :

Statement I : Acearding to Naiyayikas (Indian Logicians), in inference for others, five
steps are required.
Statement II : According to Naiyayikas, in inference for oneself, only three steps are required.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below :
A. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
B. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
C. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
D. Statement | is false but Statement II is true

Ans: A

If the letters in word ‘POWERFUL’ are rearranged as they appear in the order of English alphabet, then position of how many letters will remain unchanged?

A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. More than three

In classical square of opposition, if ‘No S is P’ is given as true, then which of the following could be immediately inferred from it?

A. ‘Some S is P’ is undetermined
B. ‘All S is P’ is false
C. ‘Some S is not P’ is undetermined
D. ‘Some S is P’ is false
E. ‘Some S is not P’ is true

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
A. A, B and E only
B. B, C and D only
C. B, D and E only
D. A, B and D only

An informal fallacy in which one moves carelessly from individual cases of a given class of persons or things to all the members of that class is called:

A. Fallacy of Division
B. Fallacy of Converse accident
C. Fallacy of Slippery Slope
D. Fallacy of Accident
E. Hasty generalisation

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
A. B and E only
B. C only
C. E only
D. C and E only

Given below are two statements

Statement I: Analogical argument is a type of inductive argument.
Statement II: In an analogical argument, it is concluded that two entities alike in some respects, are therefore alike in some other respect.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
A. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
B. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
C. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
D. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Given below are two statements

Statement I: According to Classical Indian School of Logic, proof of a statement is given with the help of a syllogism.
Statement II: According to Classical Indian School of Logic, the thesis has to be mentioned thrice as a hypothesis, second as an example and third as a conclusion.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
A. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
B. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
C. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
D. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

According to classical Indian thinkers, in which of the following means of knowledge, we accept a fact or principle for explaining an undeniable fact, which otherwise cannot be explained?

A. Non?Cognition (Anupalabdhi)
B. Comparision (Upam?na)
C. Verbal Tesimony (?abda)
D. Postulation (Arth?patti)

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent?

A. No P is S
B. Some S are non P
C, Some non P are not non S
D. Some S are not P

Cheose the correct answer fram the options given below;
1. B and C only
2. C and D only
3. B, C and D only
4. A, B C and D

Ans: C

Considering the Speech given by the School Principal today.. I would conclude that he is net a good Public Speaker.” Identify the informal fallacy committed in the above argument.

1. Slippery Slope
3. Appeal to force
4. Hasty Generalisation

Ans: D

Which of the following is true regarding Inductive argument?

1. If all the premises are true, the conclusion must be true.
2. IT claims:to support its conclusion only with some degree of probability
3. It claims to Support its conclusion conclusively
4. Conclusion |s‘completely contained already in the premises

Ans: B

When inference is based not on causation but on uniformity of co-existence, what fs it called as per
Classical Indian School of Logic?

1. Kevalanvayi
2, Samanyatodrsta
3. Porvavat
4, Sesavat

Ans: B

Which of following is true regarding Classical Indian School of Logic?

A, It is deductive
B. It is inductive
C, It is formal
D. It is maternal
E, It always leads from universal to particular only

Choose the correct answer fram the options given below;
1. A, B, C and D only
2. B and C only
3. A and D only
4. A,B,C, D and E

Ans: A

The standard form categorical proposition of ‘Roses are fragrant’ is

1. Some Roses are fragrant
2. Some fragrant things are not Roses
3. No. fragrant things are Roses
4. All Roses are fragrant things

Ans: D

Which one of the following formal fallacies is committed in the given argument?

All athletes are sportspersons.
No actor is an athlete.
Therefore no actors are spoartspersons.

(1) Fallacy of Dheit process of Major Term
(2) Fallacy of Dheit process of Minor Term
(3) Fallacy of Exclusive Premises
(4) Existential Fallacy

Ans: A

Which of the following pramanas are accepted as valid by the Naiyayikas?

(A) Perception
(B) Inference
(C) Presumption
(D) Verbal Testimony
(E) Comparison

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (A), B), (C) and (D) Only
(2) (B), (C), (D) and (E) Only
(3) (A), (B). (D) and (E) Only
(4) (A), (C), D) and (E) Only

Ans: C

Given below are two statements :

Statement (I): In Anvaya-Vyatireki; middle term is both positively and negatively related
to the major term.
Statement (II): The knowledge of vyapti in Anvaya-vyatireki is arrived at through the
joint method of agreement in presence and in absence.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are true
(2) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are false
(3) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(4) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true

Ans: A

Which of the following propasitions is obverse of and logically equivalent to “Sore meri are honest”?

1. Some men are dishonest.
2. Some men are not dishonest,
3. No ten-are dishonest,
4. Some dishonest people are not men,

Ans: C

Given below are two statements

Statement I; To obvert a proposition, we change its quality and replace the predicate term with its complement,
Statement Il; Obversion is valid for any standard form categorical proposition,

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement I is true but Statement Il is false
4. Statement I is false but Statement Il is true

Ans: B

Which logical informal fallacy is committed in the following argument, “No one has proved that global warmirig is actually occuring, so there isno reason to believe that it is actually occuring,”?

1, Begging the question
2, Equivecation
3, Appeal to ignorance
4, Hasty generalisation

Ans: C

The argument, ‘Sound is eternal, because it is produced’, is fallacious because:

1, Middle term is contradicted by another pramana (means of knowledge).
2, The middle term is too narrow,
3, Middle term itself disprowes the original proposition and proves its contradictory,
4, The miner term isthe locus of the middle term,

Ans: B

Which of the following Pramdanas (means of knowledge) is differentiated into Svartha (for one self) and Parartha (for others) types?

1, Pratyaksa (perception)
2, Anumana (inference)
3, Upamana (comparison)
4, Sabda (verbal testimony)

Ans: C

Given below are two statements : One is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labeled as Reason (R).

Assertion (A): A valid deductive-argument with all true premises will lead to a true conclusion.
Reason (R) : In a valid deductive argument. the conclusion follows from the premises with absolute necessity.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(2) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)
(3) (A) is true but (R) is false
(4) (A) ts false but (R) is true

Ans: A

Which one of the following formal fallacies is committed in the given argument?

All snakes are reptiles.
Some snakes are poisonous creatures.
Therefore all poisonous creatures are reptiles.

(1) Fallacy of Illicit process of major term
(2) Fallacy of Illicit process of minor term
(3) Fallacy of undistributed middle term
(4) Fallacy of four terms

Ans: B

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: An inference which is based on the middle term being only positively
related to the major term is called Kevalanvayi.
Statement II: In Kevalanvayi anumana. the knowledge of vyapti between the middle and
major terms is arrived at through the method of argument in absence.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(3) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: C

What comes next in the following sequence? ET, JR. MP. PN. ?

(1) SM
(2) RM
(3) SL
(4) RL

Ans: Drop

Ramesh goes to North, then turns right. then turns right again and then goes to the left. In
which direction is Ramesh in now?

(1) North
(2) South
(3) East
(4) West

Ans: C

Given below are two statements : One is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).

Assertion (A): In a valid eategorial syllogism, if a term is distributed in the conclusion,
then it must be distributed in the premises.
Reason (R) : The conclusion of a valid argument cannot assert any more than is
contained in the premises.

In the light of the above statements. Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(2) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)
(3) (A) ia true but (R) is false
(4) (A) is false but (R) is true

Ans: A

Identify the formal fallacy committed im the argument :

All criminals are human beings.
All saints are human beings
Therefore all saints are criminals.

(1) Fallacy of Ilicit process of Major Term
(2) Fallacy of Illicit process of Minor Team
(3) Fallacy of undistributed Middle Term
(4) Fallacy of Four Terms

Ans: B

Identify the fallacy committed in the following argument :
“An elephant is an animal: therefore, a small elephant is a small animal”.

(1) Arzument from Ignorance
(2) Fallacy of Irrelevant Conclusion
(3) Fallacy of False Cause
(4) Fallacy of Equivocation

Ans: D

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: The Nyaya system does not accept Arthapatti as an independent source of
valid knowledge.
Statement II: The Nyaya system reduces Arthapatti to an inference of anvayi type.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(3) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: C

Given below are two statements : One 1s labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R).

Assertion (A): In Samanyatodrsta inference the universal relation between the major
and middle term depends on causal uniformity.
Reason (R) : The middle term of the inference is related to the major term neither as a
cause nor as an effect.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(2) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)
(3) (A) is true but (R) is false
(4) (A) is false but (R) is true

Ans: D

Given below are two statements:

Assertion A: There are certain psychological conditions under which inference takes place.
Reason R : Absence of positive knowledge and will to infer its presence or absence are.
pre-requisites for inference to be drawn.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(2) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(3) Ais true but R is false
(4) Ais false but Ris true

Ans: A

Match List I with List II:

List I
A. Fallacy that occurs due to appeal to nonrational methods of intimidation
B. Fallacy that occurs when an argument makes an appeal to the character of the person
C. Fallacy that occurs when an argument is in the form of emotional “appeal to the gallery”
D. Fallacy that occurs when a general rule is applied to a case in which the rule is inapplicable
List II
(II) Aécident Fallacy

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A-I B-II C-III D-IV
2. A-III B-II C-I D-IV
3. A-II B-IV C-I D-III
4. A-IV B-I C-III D-II

Ans: D

Which of the following is not a fallacy of Ambiguity?

(1) Equtivocation
(2) Amphiboly
(3) Accent
(4) Accident

Ans: D

Given below are two statements: One is labeled as Assertion A and the other is labeled as Reason R.

Assertion A: A’propername has only denotation but no connotation.
Reason R : Intension refers to set of adjectives: Extension refers to set of substantives.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(2) Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A
(3) Ais true but R is false
(4) Ais false but R is true

Ans: A

If ‘All college professors are entertaining lecturers’ is True in a square of opposition which of
the following can be inferred correctly from the given codes.

(A) ‘No college professors are entertaining lecturers is false
(B) ‘Some college professors are not entertaining lecturers’ is true
(C) ‘Some college professors are entertaining lecturers’ is true
(D) ‘Some colleze professors are entertaming lecturers’ is false

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) (A) and (B) only
(2) (B) and (C) only
(3) (C) and (D) only
(4) (A) and (C) only

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are sub-contraries?

A. All nurses are caring human beings,
B. No nurses are caring human beings.
C, Some nurses are-caring human beings.
D. Some nurses-are not caring human beings.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below;
1. A and B only
2, A and D only
3. B and C only
4. C and D only

Ans: D

Identify the formal fallacy committed in the following argument:
“All comaunists are revolutionists. All anarchists are revolutionists. Therefore, all
anarchists are revolutionists.”

1. the fallacy of the undistributed middle
2. The existentialist fallacy
3. Illicit major
4. Illicit minor

Ans: Drop

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent?

A. No Sis P
B. No PisS
C, All S are non-P
D. All non-P are non-S
E, No’S is non-P

Choose the correct answer fram the options given below;
1. A, C and D only
2. A, B and C only
3. B, C and D only
4. A, B, C and D only

Ans: B

Which of the following steps of inference state(s) the reason for the establishment of
the proposition according to the Classical Indian School of Logic?

A. The hill has fire.
B, Because it has smoke,
C, Whatever has smoke has fire e.g. oven,
D, This hill has smoke which is invariably associated with fire,
E, Therefore this hill has fire.

Choose the correct answer fram the options given below;
1. C only
2. D and E only
3. B only
4. C and D only

Ans: C

Given below are two statements

Statement I: Indian Logic makes a distinction between deduction and induction.
Statement II: Indian Logic studies thought as such and not the forms of theught alone,

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below
1. Both Statement | and Statement || are true
2. Both Statement | and Statement || are false
3. Statement | is true but Statement II is-false
4, Statement | is false but Statement Il is true

Ans: D

The secretaries have asked us to provide lounge areas where they can sperid their coffee
breaks. This request will have to be refused. If we give them lounge areas, next they will ask
for spas and swimming pools, Then it will be yoga centres and fitness gyms. Expenditures for these facilities will drive us into bankruptcy”. Which fallacy is committed in the above
argument?

(1) Strawman
(2) Hasty generalization
(3) Red herring
(4) Slippery slope

Ans: D

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: The intensional meaning consists of the qualities or attmbutes that the term denotes.
Statement II: The extensional meaning consists of the members of the class that the term denotes.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(3) Statement I is correct but Statement Il is incorrect
(4) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: D

Which of the following is true regarding Nyaya view of invariable concomitance?

(A) It is determined by inductive process of reasoning which corresponds to Mill’s method of agreement and method of difference.
(B) It is based om concomitance of affirmatives that wherever a product exists the material cause thereof exists.
(C) Ttas based on the concomitance of negatives that wherever a material cause does not exist the product thereof does not exist.
(D) Nyaya view of inductive process does not correspond to Mill’s method of agreement and method of difference.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (A). (C) and (D) only
(2) (B), (C) and (D) only
(3) (B) and (C) only
(4) (A), (B) and (C) only

Ans: D

If Sneha tampered with the examination script. then she is guilty of a crime: Sneha did not
tamper with the examination script. Therefore sneha is not guilty of a crime’. Which fallacy
is committed in the above argument?

(1) Fallacy of affirming the antecedent
(2) Fallacy of composition
(3) Fallacy of denying the antecedent
(4) Fallacy of affirming the consequent

Ans: C

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: According to Nyaya philosophy an argument does not proceed on the issues
that are well established.
Statement II: According to Nyaya philosophy an argument can proceed only on those issues that are completely and absolutely unknown.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(3) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(4) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: C

If ‘BEAUTIFUL’ is coded as “ADZTSHETK’ in some coding scheme, then haw will ‘HANDSOME be coded in the same scheme?

1. GBMETOLD
2. GZMCRNLD
3. IZMCRPNF
4. IBMCTPNE

Ans: C

If the statement, ‘All human beings are mortal’ is given as true, which of the following can be inferred from it to be true?

1. Some human beings are mortal,
2. No mortals are non-human beings.
3. Some non-mortals are human beings.
4. Some non-human beings are not mortal.

Ans: C

Which logical informal fallacy is committed in the following argument?
“The maths teacher said that there was to be no talking during the test. So it is fair that Chandni had points deducted for asking to go to the washroom because she felt sick”.

1. Appeal te force
2, Appeal to emotion
3, Appeal to authority
4, Fallacy ef accident

Ans: A

Which of the following statements are true regarding Nyaya logic?

A, Inference is from the universal to the particular only.
B. Inference is from the particular to the universal only.
C, Inference is from the particular te the particular only.
D. Inference is from the particular to: the particular throught the universal,

Choose the correct answer from the options given below;
1. D only
2. A only
3. A and B only
4, B and D only

Ans: C

Which of the following inferences are based on causation according to Nyaya view of inference?

A, Inferring future rain from the dark clouds
B. Inferring past rain from the swift muddy water in the nver
C, Inferring-cloven hoofs of an animal by its horns
D. When we infer somebody’s existence outside of his house since the person is not concurrently present in his‘house

Choose the correct answer from the options given below,
1. A and C only
2. C and D only
3. A and B only
4. B and C only

Ans: B

Which of the following propositions are logically equivalent to ‘No women are dishonest
human beings’ :

(A) No dishonest human bemgs are women
(B) All women are non-dishonest human beings
(C) No women are non-dishonest human beings
(D) All non-women are non-dishonest

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. (A) and (B) only
2. (C) and (D) only
3. (A) and (C) only
4. (A). (B) and (C) only

Ans: A

Human beings are animals because as homo sapiens we all evolved thousands of years ago”.
Which informal fallacy is committed in the above argument?

1. Fallacy of composition and division
2. Fallacy of accident
3. False cause
4. Red herring

Ans: A

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: If a deductive argument is valid and its premises are true, we say that the
argument is sound.
Statement II : If an inductive argument is strong and its premises are true, we say that it is cogent

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: A

Which of the following steps of inference as per classical Indian school of logic involve
application of the universal concomitance to the particular present case

(A) Socrates is mortal
(B) Because he is a man
(C) Whoever is a man is a mortal e.g. Pythagoras
(D) Socrates is aman who is invariably a mortal
(E) Therefore Socrates is mortal

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. (A), (B) and (E) only
2. (C) and (D) only
3. (B) and (D) only
4. (D) only

Ans: D

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: Verbal form is an integral part of the inference according to classical Indian
school of logic.
Statement II: Classical Indian school of logic distinguishes between induction and
deduction as separate inferential processes.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement Il is incorrect
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: B

In a certain coding scheme, UNIVERSITY is coded as “EIINRSTUVY. How INSTITUTION shall be coded in the same coding scheme?

1. IIINNOSTTTU
2. IININOSUTTT
3. INIINOSTUTT
4. IINNIOSTTTU

Ans: B

Which of the following propostition 1s contrary to the proposition ‘All women are honest?

1. Some women are honest
2. No women are honest
3. Some women are not dishonest
4. No women are dishonest

Ans: B

Which of the following forms of categorical propostitions is valid?

(A) Some S is not P
(B) Some S is P
(C) No S is P
(D) All S is P

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. A B C only
2. B C D only
3. A C D only
4. A B C D

Ans: D

Which informal logical fallacy is committed in the following argument — ‘No one has shown that aliens did not create the crop circles. So the crop circles must have been made by the aliens?

1. Begging the question
2. Appeal to Ignorance
3. Fallacy of accident
4. Appeal to authority

Ans: A

Given below are two statements :

Statement I : Anistotehan syllogism has three terms,
Statement II : Nyiiya syllogism has five terms.

In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4. Statement l is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: C

The proposition- ‘all things are non-eternal. because they are Enowable is fallacious because

1. The middle term is non-exclusive,
2. The middle term is too narrow.
3. The middle term is too wide
4. It involves a contradictory middle term.

Ans: D

If the statement ‘All women are honest is e1ven as true. which of the following propositions
ean be inferred from it?

(A) ‘No women is honest’ 1s false.
(B) ‘Some women are honest’ is true.
(C) ‘No women is honest’ is undetermined
(D) ‘Some women are not honest’ is false

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. A B D only
2. B D only
3. B C D only
4. C D only

Ans: B

Given below are two statements :

Statement I : To form the contrapositive of a given proposition. we replace its subject term with the complement of its predicate term. and we replace its prédicate term with the complement of its subject term.
Statement II : All contra positions are valid.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
4. Statement Tis false but Statement II is true

Ans: D

Which of the logical informal fallacy is committed in the following argument Mr. X used abusive language toward the child who threw a stone at his car. Since child abuse is a crime he should be reported to the authorities’?

1. Appeal tp emotion
2. Hasty generation
3. Equivocation
4. Appeal to force

Ans: A

Given below are two statements :

Statement I : Aristotelian syllogism regards deduction and induction as inseparably related.
Statement Ii : The Nyaya school of classical Indian philosophy regards deduction and induction as two aspects of the same process.

In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
1. Both Statement l and Statement Ii are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement l is true but Statement II is false
4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: C

In Nvava Syllogism:all the three terms stand synthesized in which of the followimg steps of the inferential process?

1. Example (Udaharana)
2. Conclusion (Nigamana)
3. Application (Upanaya)
4. Reason (hetu)

Ans: A

In a certain coding scheme ‘MOTHER’ is coded as ‘OQVIGT., How will PARTNER’ be coded in the same coding scheme?

1, RDUTGHU
2, REUTOHU
3, RETUOGT
4, RCTVPGT

Ans: D

If the statement, ‘Some officers are not honest’ is given as false, then which of the following statements can be inferred to be true?

A. All honest beings are officers
B. Some officers are honest
C. No officers are honest
D. All officers are honest

Choose the correct answer from the options given below;
1. B only
2. D only
3, A and C only
4, B and D only

Ans: D

For which of the following forms of categorial propositions contraposition is valid?

A. Some S is P
B, Some 5 isnot P
C. NaS is P
D. All S is P

Cheose the correct answer from the options given below;
1. A, C and D only
2, A, B, C and D
3, A, B and C only
4, B, C and D only

Ans: D

Which informal logical fallacy is committed in the following statement?
‘if you_give him an inch, he will take a mile.’

1. Slippery slope
2, Appeal ta force
3, Appeal to authority
4, Hasty generalization

Ans: A

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: In the Aristotelian syllogism, the major term and the miner term stand apart in the premises though they are connected by the middie term with each other.
Statement II: In Nyaya syllogism, all the three terms stand synthesised in Upanaya.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given beiow:
1, Both Statement | and Statement II are correct
2, Both Statement | and Statement II are incorrect
3, Statement | is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4, Statement | is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: A

Which of the five essential characteristics of the middle term (hetu) is violated when an inference involves a non-inferentially contradicted middle?

1. Middle term must be absent in all negative instances in which the major term is absent.
2. Middle term must be non-incompatible with the minerterm,
3. Middle term must be present in the minor term.
4. Middle term must be present in all positive instances in which the major term is present,

Ans: B

“T think you will find that this bail out is the best option before our organization. especially because disagreement may indicate that this company is not the right place for you” Which informal fallacy is committed in the above argument?

1. False alternative
2. Circular argument
3. Appeal to force
4. Appeal to inappropriate authority

Ans: C

Which of the following statements are contraries?

(A) All men are mortal
(B) Some men are mortal
(C) Some men are not mortal
(D) No men are mortal

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. A C only
2. B C only
3. B D only
4. A D only

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent?

(A) Some animals are birds.
(B) Some birds are animals.
(C) Some animals are not non-birds.
(D) Some animals are non-birds.
(E) Some non-birds are not non-animals.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
1. A B C only
2. A C D only
3. B C only
4. B C D E only

Ans: C

Given below are two statements :

Statement I : According to classical Indian School of Logic inference for oneself is called Svartha Anumana
Statement II : Svartha Anumana is a syllogism and has to be presented in language.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are false
3. Statement I is true but Statement II is false
4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: C

According to classi¢al Indian School of Logie which of the following steps of inference involve application of the universal concommiutance to the present case?

(A) This hill has fire
(B) Because it has smoke
(C) Whatever has smoke has fire. e.g. an oven
(D) This hill has smoke which is invariably associated with fire
(E) Therefore the hill has fire

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
1. C E only
2. B C only
3. C only
4. D only

Ans: D

If the statement, ‘Some animals are not ferocious’ is given as true, then which of the
following could be immediately inferred from it:

A. ‘All animals are ferocious’ is undetermined
B. ‘Some animals are ferocious’ is false
C.’No animals are ferocious’ is undetermined
D. ‘All animals are ferocious’ Is false

Choose the carrect answer from the options given below:
(1) Cand D only
(2) B and D only
(3) 6, C and D only
(4) A, Band C only

Ans: A

Miss World says that the socially correct thing for a vegetarian quest to do at a dinner
party is to lack perfectly happy eating salads. Therefore, to act likewise is the socially
correct thing to do”, Which fallacy is committed in the above argument?

(1) Red Herring
(3) Appeal to Inappropriate Authority

Ans: C

Given below are two statements

Statement I: ‘Some S is P’ is contrary to ‘No S is P’.
Statement II: ‘Some § is P’ is subcontrary to ‘Some \$ is not P’.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options givenbelow
(1) Both Statement | and Statement || are true
(2) Both Statement | and Statement Il are false
(3) Statement | is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement | is false but Statement II is true

Ans: D

Given below are two statements

Statement I: According to Classical Indian Logicians, all fallacies are material fallacies.
Statement II: According to Classical Indian Logicians, fallacies could be purely formal as well as purely informal.

In light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below
(1) Both Statement | and Statement II are correct
(2) Both Statement | and Statement II are incorrect
(3) Statement | is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(4) Statement | is incorrect but Statement III is correct

Ans: C

Which of the following statements are true regarding Nyaya view of Inference as a valid source of knowledge?

A. It is a cognition which presupposes some other cognition
B. It is mediate or indirect
C. It arises through a mark (linga or hetu)
D. That mark is invariably connected with the object of inference (sadhya)

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) C and D only
(2) A, B, Cand D
(3) A, B and D only
(4) B, C and D only

Ans: B

In a certain code, O is written as E, A as C, M as I, S as O,N as P, E as M, l as A, P as N and C as S, then how will COMPANION be written in that code?

(1) SEINCPAEP
(2) SENCIAPEP
(3) SENCPIAPE
(4) SNEIPCAPE

Ans: A

If the statement ‘No birds are mammals’ is given as true, what could be immediately
inferred from it ?

A. ‘All birds are mammals’ is false
B. ‘Some birds are mammals’ is false
C. ‘Some birds are not mammals’ is false
D. ‘Some birds are not mammals’ is true

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) A, B and C only
(2) A, B and D only
(3) A and D only
(4) A and C only

Ans: B

XYZ Home Finance offers best financial product in the country because like a family member and a good friend XYZ Home Finance fulfills your need to have your own sweet home”. Which of the following fallacies is committed in this argument?

(3) Hasty Generalisation
(4) Red Herring

Ans: A

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: ‘Some \$ is P’ is contrary to ‘Some § is not P’.
Statement II: ‘Some 5 is not P’ is contradictory to ‘All S is P.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) Both Statement | and Statement II are true
(2) Both Statement | and Statement II are false
(3) Statement | is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement | is false but Statement II is true

Ans: D

Given below are two statements :-

Statement I: For the Indian thinkers, inference (anumana) means only a syllogistic
inference based on the relation of invariable concomittance between middle term and major term.
Statement II: There should be absence of the middle term wherever there is an absence of the major term.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below :-
(1) Both Statement | and Statement II are true
(2) Both Statement | and Statement II are false
(3) Statement | is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement | is false but Statement II is true

Ans: A

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: According to Classical Indian Logicians (Naiyayikas) the inference from the
effect of the cause is called Purvavat.
Statement II: According to Naiyayikas the inference of cause from the effect is not possible.

In light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) Both Statement | and Statement II are true
(2) Both Statement | and Statement II are false
(3) Statement | is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement | is false but Statement II is true

Ans: C

In classical square of opposition if ‘Some S is P’ is given as false then which of the following
could be immediately inferred from it?

(A) ‘All S is P is false
(B) ‘All S is P’ is undetermined
(C) ‘No S is P is undetermined
(D) ‘No S is P is true
(E) ‘Some S is not P’ is true

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (B), (D), (E) only
(2) (A), (C), (E) only
(3) (B), (C), (E) only
(4) (A), (D), (E) only

Ans: D

Which of the following Fallacy involves defective Induction?

(1) Fallacy of Composition
(2) Fallacy of Division
(3) The Argument from Ignorance
(4 TIrrelevant Conclusion

Ans: C

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: Analogical reasoning is based on a likeness drawn between two or more entities in one or more respects.
Statement II : There could be argumentative as well as non argumentative uses of analogy.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(3) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: A

According to Classical Indian School of Logic (Nyaya) which of the following conditions must be fullfilled by a true middle term (hetu)?

(A) It must be found in minor term (paksa).
(B) It must be found in all similar instances.
(C) It should not be found anywhere where major term (sadhya) is absent.
(D) The minor term in which it is said to exist should not be impossible.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
(1) (A), (C), (D) only
(2) (A), (B), (D) only
(3) (A), (B), (C), (D) only
(4) (A), (B), (C) only

Ans: A

In which of the following means of knowledge a hitherto unseen object is known through
cognition of its similarity in some respects with an already seen object when one comes across that hitherto unseen object?

(1) Perception (Pratyaksa)
(2) Non-Cognition (Unupalabdhi)
(3) Comparison (Upmana)
(4) Postulation (Arthapatti)

Ans: C

Arrange the following words according to English dictionary arrangement:

(A) Epitaxy
(B) Episode
(C) Epigene
(D) Epitome
(E) Epilogue

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. C E B A D
2. C E A B D
3. C A E B D
4. C E B D A

Ans: A

following could be immediately inferred from it?

(A) ‘Some S is P’is true
(B) ‘Some S is P’ is undetermined
(C) ‘Some S is P is false
(D) “All S is P’ is undetermined
(B) All S is P’ is true

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (B), (C), (E) only
(2) (A).(C). (E) only
(3) (B),(C), (D) only
(4) (A). (C), (D) only

Ans: Drop

Fallacy in which a proposition is held to be true just because it has not been proved false, or false just because it has not been proved true is called:

(1) Fallacy of Composition
(2) Irrelevant Conclusion
(3) Argument from Ignorance
(4) Hasty Generalization

Ans: C

Given below are two statements :

Statement I : The statement — “A person without a purpose is like a car with no engine. And that’s a useless piece of machinery” is an example of analogical argument.
Statement II: The statement — “A person with no purpose is like a car with no engine. And that’s a useless piece of machinery” is an example of non argumentative use of analogy.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(3) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: D

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: Classical Indian Logicians (Naiyayikas) recommend the use of the negative
modal or counter-factual conditional (tarka) to fortify or confirm the major premise.
Statement II : Naiyayikas accept tarka as a valid independent source of knowledge.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are true
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(3) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: C

Any object if thrown upwards starts to come downward after reaching a particular height.
Therefore there must be some force that must be pulling that object towards the Earth’s surface. This argument is based on which of the following means of knowledge?

(1) Postulation (Arthapatti)
(2) Comparison (Upamana)
(3) Verbal Testimony (Sabda)
(4) Perception (Pratyaksa)

Ans: A

Find the next term in the series: BMO. EOQ. HQS. ?

(1) KLM
(2) LMN
(3) KSU
(4) SOW

Ans: C

In classical square of opposition if “All S is P’ is given as true then which of the following
could be immediately inferred from it?

(A) ‘Some S is not P’is false
(B) ‘Some S is P’ is true
(C) “Some S is not P’ is undetermined
(D) “Some S is P’ is undetermined
(E) No S is P is false

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (A). (B). (E) only
(2) (A). (D). (E) only
(3) (B). (C). (E) only
(4) (C). (D). (E) only

Ans: A

Which of the following is defined as a type of irrelevant conclusion fallacy in which a distracting element is introduced to obscure an opponent’s position?

(1) An Appeal to Emotion
(2) Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
(4) Red Herring

Ans: D

Given below are two statements :

Statement I: Analogical argument involves drawing a likeness between two or more
entities in one or more respects.
Statement II: Analogical argument is a type of deductive argument.

In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(1) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(3) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(4) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: C

Given below are two statements : One is labelled as Assertion (A) and the other is labelled as Reason (R) :

Assertion (A): The Classical Indian School of Logic. namely Nyaya does not give separate
treatment of the inductive methods.
Reason (R) : According to Nyaya universal propositions are obtained from perception
itself by one of the forms of extra-ordinary perception.

In the light of the above statements. choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(2) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is NOT the correct explanation of (A)
(3) (A)is true but (R) is false
(4) (A is false but (R) is true

Ans: A

If the word EARTH be written as QPMZS in coded form, how can the word HEART be
written in the same code?

(1) SPMZQ
(2) SQMPZ
(3) SPMQZ
(4) SQPMZ

Ans: D

In classical square of opposition if ‘No § is P’ is given as false then which of the following
could be immediately inferred from it?

(A) ‘Some § is not P’ is true
(B) ‘All § is P’ is undetermined
(C) ‘Some 5 is not P’ is undetermined
(D) ‘Some Sis P’ is true
(E) ‘Some 5 is not P’ is false

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
(1) (B). (D) and (E) only
(2) (A). (B) and (D) only
(3) (A), (D) and (E) only
(4) (B). (C) and (D) only

Ans: D

Which Fallacy is committed in the following argument? “Smooth Sailing is all that’s there to LIFE with ABC Insurance Policy.”

(1) The Appeal to Emotion
(2) The Appeal to Pity
(3) The Appeal to Force
(4) Irrelevant Conclusion

Ans: A

Given below are two statements :

StatementI: To draw an analogy between two or more entities is to indicate one or more
respects in which they are similar.
Statement II: Everry analogical inference proceeds from the similarity of two or more
things in one or more respects to the similarity of those things in some further respect.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(1) Both Statement I and Statement IT are correct
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
(3) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(4) Statement I is meorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: A

Given below are two statements :

StatementI: For the Classical Indian thinkers, inference (anumana) means only syllogistic inference.
Statement II: Unlike Aristotelian Syllogism, anumdna involves four steps instead of three.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below:
(1) Both Statement I and Statement IT are true
(2) Both Statement I and Statement II are false
(3) Statement I is true but Statement II is false
(4) Statement I is false but Statement II is true

Ans: C

Which of the following means of knowledge involves positing of something for making any
unit of cognition self-complete?

(1) Comparison (Upamana)
(2) Postulation (Arthapatti)
(3) Non-Cognition (Anupalabdhi)
(4) Verbal Testimony (Sabda)

Ans: B

If in a certain coding language ‘Fraction’ is Coded as ‘Carfnoit’ and ‘System’ is coded as ‘Sysmet’, then in that Coding language how ‘material’ will be coded?

1. ‘eltaaimr’
2. ‘lairetam’
3. ‘etamlair’
4, ‘etalmair’

Ans: C

The following statement is an example of which logical fallacy- “Elephants live in tropical climates where there is plenty of vegetation. So we probably would not see any at the Chicago zoo.”

1. Red herring
2. Hasty generalization
3. Fallacy of accident
4. Appeal to authority

Ans: C

Which of the following statements is logically equivalent to the statement — “No frogs are mammals”?

1. No mammals are frogs.
2. All non-mammals are non-frogs.
3. Some non-mammals are not non-frogs.
4. Some mammals are non-frogs.

Ans: A

If the proposition- ‘Some frogs are not mammials.’ is given as false, then which of the following propositions can be immediately inferred to be false?

1. Some frogs are mammals.
2. All non-frogs are mammals.
3. No frogs are mammals.
4. All frogs are mammals.

Ans: C

Which of the following propositions are so related that they cannot both be false although they may both be true?

A. All tigers are man-eaters.
B. Some tigers are man-eaters.
C. Some tigers are not man-eaters.
D. No tigers are man-eaters.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.B and C only
2.C and D only
3. Aand D only
4. Aand C only

Ans: A

Which of the following argument is an example of the fallacy of Vyapyatvasiddha according to Nydaya (classical Indian school of Logic)?

1. Sound is quality because it is visible.
2. Sound is eternal, because it is audible.
3. Fire is cold because it is a substance.
4, Wherever there is fire, there is smoke.

Ans: D

Which fallacy is committed in the following argument? “As a society we have an obligation to support the needy, because people who do not have sufficient resources have a right to the resources of the community”.

1. Begging the question
2. Equivocation
3. Fallacy of composition
4. Appeal to emotion

Ans: A

If the statement ‘Some animals are birds’, is given as false, then which of the following statements could be immediately inferred to be true?

A. All animals are birds.
B. No animals are birds.
C. Some animals are not birds.
D. All birds are animals.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. B only
2. A and D only
3. C only
4. B and C only

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are so related that they cannot both be true, although they both may be false?

A. All trees have roots.
B. No trees have roots.
C. Some trees have roots.
D. Some trees do not have roots.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. C and D only
2. A and B only
3. B and D only
4, A and C only

Ans: B

According to Nyaya (classical Indian school of logic) which of the following is an example of Badhit fallacy (non-inferentially contradicted middle)?

1. Sound is quality because it is visible
2. Sound is eternal because it is produced
3. All things are non-eternal because they are knowable.
4. Fire is cold because it is a substance.

Ans: D

While pointing towards a picture, a man says “This girl is the wife of the grand-son of my mother”. How is the man related to the girl in the picture?

1. Brother-in-law
2. Father
3. Father-in-law
4. Brother

Ans: C

If ‘No metals are gases’ is given as false, then which of the following statements can be immediately inferred to be true?

A. All gases are metals.
B. All metals are gases.
C. Some metals are not gases.
D. Some metals are gases.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.C and D only
2. A and B only
3. D only
4. A and D only

Ans: C

Which of the following statements are so related that they can not both be false, although they may both be true?

A. All metals are gases.
B. Some metals are gases.
C. Some metals are not gases.
D. No metals are gases.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and D only
2. B and Conly
3. A and B only
4. C and D only

Ans: B

The last time | stretched my arms first and my legs second, | won my race, So that stretching
sequence must have increased my speed.” Which informal fallacy is committed in the above
statement?

1. Post hoc
2. False alternative
3. Hasty generalisation
4. Slippery slope

Ans: A

Which of the following statements is logically equivalent to the statement -* No metals are
gases’?

1. All non-metals are gases.
2. No gases are metals.
3. No metals are non-gases.
4. All non-gases are non- metals.

Ans: B

According to Nyaya (classical Indian school of logic) Which fallacy is committed in the following
argument- ‘Sound is eternal because it is produced’?

1. Anupasmhari
3. Svarapasiddha
4. Viruddha

Ans: D

In a certain coded language the word MEDICINE is called as: EOJDJEFM. How the word COMPUTER will
be coded in the same coded language?

1. REVUNQPC
2. RFUVQNPC
3. CANQVUFR
4. CPQNUVFR

Ans: B

An informal fallacy where something is assumed as a fact because the contrary of that is not yet proven to be true is called:

1. Begging the question
2. Appeal to Ignorance
3. Complex Question
4. Red Herring

Ans: B

Which of the following propositions are logically equivalent?

A. Some men are arrogant human beings.
B. Some non-arrogant human beings are not non-men.
C. Some men are not non-arrogant human beings.
D. Some arrogant human beings are men.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Band D only
2. Aand C only
3.A,Band C only
4.A,CandD only

Ans: D

If the statement ‘some cricketers are fast bowlers’ is given as false then which of the following statements
could be immediately inferred to be false?

1. All cricketers are fast bowlers.
2. No cricketers are fast bowlers.
3. Some cricketers are not fast bowlers.
4. Some non-fast bowlers are not non-cricketers.

Ans: A

Which of the following statements are so related that they cannot both be true, although both may be false?

A. All sports persons are athletes.
B. No sports persons are athletes.
C. Some sports persons are athletes.
D. Some sports persons are not athletes.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Aand B only
2.Cand D only
3. Aand D only
4.Band C only

Ans: A

According to classical Indian school of logic (Nyaya) which of the following steps of inference (anumana)
corresponds to Upanaya (application of the universal concomitance to the presented case)?

1. Socrates is mortal.
2. Because he is a man.
3. Whoever is a man is a mortal, e.g. Plato.
4. Socrates is a man who is invariably a mortal.

Ans: D

Does the distinguished Member of the Parliament really believe that the Indian public is so naive that they will endorse just any stopgap measure’? Which fallacy is committed in the above arugument?

1. Begging the question
2. Red Herring
3. Appeal to Ignorance
4, Complex Question

Ans: D

lf the statement – “Some pandas are herbivorous animals”, is given as true, then which of the
following statements can be immediately inferred to be false?

1. No pandas are herbivorous animals.
2. All pandas are herbivorous animals.
3. Some pandas are not herbivorous animals.
4. All herbivorous animals are pandas.

Ans: A

Which of the following statements are so related that they cannot both be false, although they may
both be true?

A. All mushrooms are fungi.
B. No mushrooms are fungi.
C. Some mushrooms are fungi.
D. Some mushrooms are not fungi.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.C and D only
2. A and B only
3. A and C only
4.B and D only

Ans: A

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent?

A. Some plants are non-fungi.
B. Some plants are not fungi.
C. Some fungi are plants.
D. Some non-fungi are not non-plants.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.B, C and D only
2.B and C only
3. A, Cand D only
4. A, B and D only

Ans: D

According to classical Indian School of logic (Nyaya) which of the following steps of inference
(anum4éna) corresponds to application (upnaya)?

A. That mountain has fire.
B. Whatever has smoke has fire, ¢.g. an oven.
C. That mountain has smoke such as is invariably accompanied by fire.
D. Because it has smoke,
E. Therefore that mountain has fire.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. C only
2. A only
3. C and E only
4.D only

Ans: A

“Ten milligrams of substance X was fed to ten mice. All of them died within two minutes. One could conclude. This amount of substance is fatal to the average mouse”. Which of the following statements regarding above argument are true?

A. It commits the fallacy of Hasty generalization.
B. It commits the fallacy of Irrelevant conclusion.
C. It is a strong inductive argument.
D. It is a weak deductive argument.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A only
2. B and C only
3. B and D only
4. C only

Ans: D

If the statement ‘all golf players are rich persons’ is given as true which of the following statements can be
inferred to be true ?

A. No golf players are rich persons.
B. Some golf players are rich persons.
C. Some rich persons are golf players.
D. Some golf players are not rich persons.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. B and D only
2. B and C only
3. A and D only
4. C and D only

Ans: B

Which of the following statements is contradictory to the statement-” all dogs are friendly animals” ?

1. No dogs are friendly animals.
2. Some friendly animals are not dogs.
3. Some friendly animals are dogs.
4, Some dogs are not friendly animals.

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent ?

A. Some fishes are not amphibians.
B. Some fishes are amphibians.
C. Some fishes are non-amphibians.
D. Some non-amphibians are not non-fishes.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. Aand B only
2. A, B and C only
3. A, C and D only
4. C and D only

Ans: C

There is smoke on the distant hill. Since smoke is always accompanied by fire, the hill must have fire too.” Which of the terms corresponds to the Sadhya (major term) in the above argument according to classical Indian school of Logic?

1. Hill
2. Fire
3. Smoke
4. Smoky hill

Ans: B

Which informal fallacy is committed in the following argument – “Scientists have been trying for centuries to disprove the claims of astrology, and none of them has ever succeeded. Therefore, we must conclude that astrology’s claims are true” ?

1. Slippery slope
2. Hasty Generalization
3. Aurgumentum ad Ignorantian (appeal to ignorance)
4. False Cause

Ans: B

Which of the following propositions can be directly inferred from the statement – “All mammals are four- legged animals?

1. All animals are four legged mammals
2. No four legged mammals are animals
3. Some mammals are four legged animals.
4. All four lggd animals are mammals

Ans: B

Which of the following statements is contrapositive to the following statement – “Some dogs are not aggressive animals”?

1. Some aggressive animals are not dogs.
2. Some dogs are aggressive animals.
3. Some non-dogs are aggressive animals.
4. Some non-aggressive animals are not non-dogs.

Ans: A

Which of the following statements are contradictory to each other?

A. All objects are perishable.
B. Some objects are not perishable.
C. Some objects are perishable.
D. No objects are perishable.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Aand D only
2.Band D only
3.Cand D only
4.Aand C only

Ans: C

To find mt way about in a village I ask a resident for guidance. Which of the following instruments of knowledge is used according to classical Indian school of Logic (Nyaya)

1. Prception (Pratyakaa)
2. Similarity (Upamap)
3. Inference (Anumana)
4. Verbal Testimony (sabda)

Ans: A

Today on average we can look forward to a longer life span than the generation before us. It is obvious that it has been possible only and only because of the millions of dedicated doctors who have ensured our good health”. Identify the fallacy committee in the above argument from the following options ?

1. Hasty Generation
2. False Cause
3. Slippery slope
4. Appeal to unqualified authority

Ans: C

If the statement ‘All cricketers are rich persons’ is given as true which of the following statements can be
inferred to be false ?

A. No cricketers are rich persons.
B. Some cricketers are rich persons.
C. Some cricketers are not rich persons.
D. Some rich persons are cricketers.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. Band C Only
2. A and C Only
3. B and D Only
4. A, B and C Only

Ans: C

Which of the following propositions are so related that they cannot both be true, although they both may be false ?

A. All football players are rich persons.
B. No football players are rich persons.
C. Some football players are rich persons.
D. Some football players are not rich persons.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. A and B Only
2. A and D Only
3. C and D Only
4. B and C Only

Ans: D

Which of the following propositions are logically equivalent ?

A. No dogs are aggressive animals.
B. No aggressive animals are dogs.
C. All dogs are non-aggressive.
D. Some dogs are not aggressive animals.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. C and D Only
2. A and D Only
3. A, B and C Only
4. Band D Only

Ans: C

Given below are two Statements :

Statement I : According to classical Indian school of Logic, namely ,Nyaya, we ascertain the relation of
universal concomitance between x and y by perceiving that in all cases the presence of x 1s accompanied by presence of y, and not perceiving any instances to the contrary.
Statement II : Classical Indian materialists argue that universal relation between two events cannot be established, there being always a room for doubt about the unobserved cases.

In the light of the above statements, choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are true.
2. Both statement I and Statement II are false.
3. Statement is true but Statement II is false.
4. Statement I is false but Statement II is true.

Ans: D

A lady while going to her college in a car drove 20 kms towards north and then 15 kms towards west. She then turned to the south and covered 10 kms. Further she turned to the east and moved 12 kms. Finally she turned right and drove 10 kms. How far and in which direction is the lady from her starting point ?

1.5 km, South
2.5 km West
3. 3 km, West
4. 3 km, North

Ans: A

Which of the following statement is logically equivalent to “No birds are mammals”?

1. Some birds are not mammals.
2. Some non-birds are mammals.
3. No mammals are birds.
4. All non-birds are mammals.

Ans: C

Which of the following is contrary to the statement “No mammals are birds”?

1. No birds are mammals.
2. Some mammals are birds.
3. All mammals are birds.
4. Some birds are mammals.

Ans: C

If the statement “Some animals are birds” is given as false then which of the following statements can be immediately inferred to be false?

1. Some birds fly.
2. Some animals are not birds.
3. No animals are birds.
4. All animals are birds.

Ans: D

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: According to Classical Indian School of logic (Nyaya) one can infer for oneself.
Statement II: According to Nyaya school inferring for oneself is a psychological process and does not require the formal statement of the different members of a syllogism.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement IT are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: A

Which informal fallacy is committed in the following statement – “Of course you want to buy XYZ toothpaste. There must be a reason, why, 90 per cent of India brushes with XYZ toothpaste”

1. Slippery slope
2. Hasty generalization
4. Strawman Fallacy

Ans: C

Which of the following statements is logically equivalent to the statement – “All women are honest human beings”

1. Some women are non-honest human beings.
2. Some honest human beings are women.
3. Some women are honest human beings.
4. No women are non-honest human beings.

Ans: D

Which of the following statements is contradictory to the statement – “Some birds are mammals”?

1. Some mammals are not birds.
2. Some birds are not mammals.
3. Some mammals are birds.
4. No birds are mammals.

Ans: D

If the statement – “Some animals are not birds” is given as false, then which of the following statements can be immediately inferred to be false?

1. All animals are birds.
2. No animals are birds.
3. Some animals are birds.
4. Some animals can fly.

Ans: B

Given below are two statements :

Statement I : Indian logic treats induction and deduction as separate processes.
Statement II : Indian logic does not reject the verbalist view of logic.

In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: B

Mr.Arun’s new car is silver grey, has grey leather upholstery and gives excellent mileage. Mr.Varma’s new car is also silver grey and has grey leather upholstery to match. | am sure Mr.Varma’s car must be equally good with fuel efficiency too.” Which of the following fallacy is committed in the above argument?

1. Amphiboly
2. Weak analogy
3. Slippery slope
4. Straw Man

Ans: B

If the statement “Some golf players are not rich persons’, is given as false which of the following statements can be inferred to be true?

A. All golf players are rich persons.
B. Some golf players are rich persons.
C. No golf players are rich persons.
D. Some rich persons are golf players .

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and D only
2. B and C only
3. A, B and D only
4. A,B and C only

Ans: C

Which of the following propositions are so related that one is the denial or negation of the other?

A. All electrical vehicles are environment friendly transportation medium.
B. Some electrical vehicles are environment friendly transportation medium.
C. No electrical trains are environment friendly transportation medium.
D. Some electrical vehicles are not environment friendly transportation medium.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A and C only
2. A and D only
3. B and D only
4.C and D only

Ans: B

Which of the following statements are equivalent?

A. All plants are living organisms.
B. No plants are non-living organisms.
C. Some plants are living organisms.
D. All non-living organisms are non- plants .

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. A, B and D only
2. A and C only
3. B, C and D only
4. C and D only

Ans: A

There is smoke on the distant hill. Since smoke is always accompanied by fire, the hill must have fire too.” Which of the following corresponds to the middle term (hetu) in the above argument?

1. Fire
2. Hill
3. Fiery Hill
4, Smoke

Ans: D

A four directional pole, has been erected at a crossroad, with arrows pointing towards four directions East, West, North and South. The pole got little damaged due to certain reason. Beacause of the damage, the North pointer of the pole is now pointing towards East and like wise other pointers have also shifted. A man desiring to go towards West takes the help of this pole and starts moving West as per pointers of the pole. In which directions is the man actually moving?

1. West
2. South
3. East
4. North

Ans: D

If Ais coded as C, B as D, C as E and so on, then code the following ‘CONFIDENTIAL

1. EQPHKFGKVNC
2. EQRIKFHQWLEN
3. DQQHLFGPWLDN
4. EQPHKFGPVKCN

Ans: D

Mr. Kubra is a murderer because he wrongfully killed someone.” Which fallacy is committed in the above argument?

1. Begging the question
3. Hasty Generalisation
4. Equivocation

Ans: A

Which of the following statements is logically equivalent to the statement-“some plants are camivorous organisms.”?

1. No camivorous organisms are plants.
2. Some plants are non-carnivorous organisms.
3. No plants are non-carnivorous organisms.
4.Some plants are not non-carnivorous organisms.

Ans: B

Supporters of the ABC Political Party are against gun control and Republicans are also against gun control, so some Republicans must be supporters of ABC Political Party.” Identify the fallacy in the above argument.

1. Affirming the consequent
2. Denying the antecedent
4. Undistributed Middle

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are contrary to each other?

A. All human beings are mortal.
B. No human beings are mortal.
C. Some human beings are mortal.
D. Some human beings are not mortal.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.Aand D only
2.Band C only
3.Aand B only
4.Aand C only

Ans: C

Which of the following sources of knowledge according to classical Indian school of logic is defined as a statement of a trustworthy person(aptavakya) and consists of understanding its meaning?

1.Sabda
2. Anumana
3. Upamana
4. Anuplabdhi

Ans: A

Which informal fallacy is committed in the following statement – “Famous singer Mr. Shantanu says ABC toothpaste boosts our immunity, therefore we must buy ABC toothpaste”?

1. Appeal to Ignorance
2. Red Herring
3. Strawman
4. Appeal to Inappropriate authority

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are contrary to each other as per traditional square of opposition?

A. All plants are oxygen producers.
B. Some plants are oxygen producers.
C. Some plants are not oxygen producers.
D. No plants are oxygen producers.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. B and C only
2. A and D only
3. A and Conly
4. B and D only

Ans: B

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent?

A. No lions are herbivorous animals.
B. No herbivorous animals are lions.
C. All lions are non-herbivorous animals.
D. All non-herbivorous animals are non-lions.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. B, C and D only
2. C and D only
3. B and D only
4. A, B and Conly

Ans: D

If the statement -“No lions are herbivorous animals” is given as true, then which of the following statements can be immediately inferred to be true?

1. Some lions are not carnivorous animals.
2. All lions are herbivorous animals.
3. Some lions are herbivorous animals.
4. Some lions are not herbivorous animals.

Ans: D

In which type of following inference the middle term is both positively and negatively related to the major term as per Classical Indian School of Logic?

1. Kevalvyatireki
2. Kevalanvayi
3. Anvayavyatireki
4. Satpratipaksa

Ans: C

Identify the informal fallacy in the following argument – “No one has ever given an indubitable proof regarding impossibility of life on Planet X therefore one can conclude that there is life on Planet X”.

1. Appeal to Ignorance
2. Red Herring
3. Straw man
4. Appeal to Inappropriate authority

Ans: A

As per traditional square of opposition which of the following statements are sub alternate?

A. All plants are oxygen-producers.
B. No plants are oxygen producers.
C. Some plants are not oxygen producers.
D. Some plants are oxygen-producers..

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. B and D only
2. C and D only
3. B and C only
4. A and B only

Ans: C

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent?

A. Some animals are not carnivorous organisms.
B. Some animals are not non-carnivorous organisms.
C. Some non-carnivorous organisms are not non-animals.
D. Some animals are non-carnivorous organisms.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. B and D only
2. A, B and D only
3. A, C and D only
4. B and C only

Ans: C

If the statement “No lions are herbivorous animals”, is given as true, then which of the following statements can be immediately inferred to be false?

A. All lions are herbivorous animals.
B. Some lions are herbivorous animals.
C. Some lions are not herbivorous animals.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. B only
2. A and B only
3. A and C only
4. C only

Ans: B

Which of the following type of inference is based on mere co-existence of middle and major term as per classical Indian school of Logie (Nyaya)?

2. Samanyatodrsta
3. Shesavat
4. Purvavat

Ans: B

P introduces another man ‘Q’ by saying, “He is the husband of the grand daughter of the father of my father”. How is ‘Q’ related to ‘P’?

1. Cousin
2. Brother-in-law
3. Son
4. Uncle

Ans: B

While pointing towards a girl, Arun says, ‘this girl is the daughter of the only child of my father’. What is the relation of Arun’s wife with the girl?

1. Mother-in-law
2. Aunt
3. Mother
4. Sister

Ans: C

Which logical fallacy is committed in the following statement – “I do not believe that serial killers ought to be allowed to live. They have forfeited their right to live because anyone who kills lots of people has lost that right”.

1. Hasty Generalization
2. Slippery Slope
3. Begging the question

Ans: C

If capital punishment actually deterred people from committing serious crimes, then it would be justified. But as it does not have that deterrent effect, it is not a justifiable practice”. Which formal fallacy is committed in the above argument ?

1. Affirming the consequent
2. Undistributed middle
3. Existential fallacy
4. Denying the antecedent

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent

A. Some physicists are outstanding professors.
B. Some physicists are not non-outstanding professors.
C. No outstanding professors are physicists.
D. Some non-outstanding professors are not non-physicists.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1. A, B and D only
2.Aand B only
3.Band D only
4.Aand D

Ans: B

Which of the following statements are so related that they can not both be true but could both be false?

A. All Biologists are outstanding teachers.
B. Some Biologists are outstanding teachers.
C. No Biologists are outstanding teachers.
D. Some Biologists are not outstanding teachers.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1.B and D only
2.Aand D only
3.Aand C only
4.Cand D

Ans: C

According to classical Indian School of Logic (Nydya) which fallacy is committed in the following statement – “The hill has fire because it is knowable”?

2. Anupsamhari

Ans: D

Which fallacy is commited in the following statement – * No one has ever proven that God exists. Therefore God does not exist”,

1. Appeal to Ignorance
3. Hasty Generalisation
4. Slippery slope

Ans: A

“If you read Professor Harry’s book, you should be able to recognise and succesfully attack fallacious reasoning, and you are able to do that. Therefore, you must have read Professor Harry’s book”. Which formal fallacy is committed in the above argument?

1. Denying the antecedent
2. Affirming the consequent
3. Existentialist fallacy
4. Undistributed middle

Ans: B

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent?

A. All professors are competent scholars.
B. No professors are non-competent scholars.
C. No competent scholars are professors.
D. All non-competent scholars are non-professors.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. B, C and D only
2. A and B only
3. B and Conly
4. A B and D only

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are so related that they cannot both be true but can both be false?

A. All physicists are outstanding teachers.
B. No physicists are outstanding teachers.
C. Some physicists are outstanding teachers.
D. Some physicists are not outstanding teachers.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.A and B only
2.Band D only
3.Aand Conly
4.Cand D only

Ans: A

According to classical Indian school of logic (Nyaya) Which fallacy is committed in the following statement. “All things are non-eternal because they are knowable”?

1. Viruddha
3. Anupasarhhari

Ans: C

“You really must try out to be selected in the basketball team because my uncle who teaches philosophy says that you have a real potential”, Identify the logical fallacy committed in the above argument.

1. Hasty Generalisation
2. Appeal to Inappropriate authority
4. Begging the question

Ans: B

Which of the following statements are so related that if one of them is true the other must be false and viceversa ?

A. All human beings are mortal.
B. Some human beings are mortal.
C. Some human beings are not mortal.
D. No human beings are mortal.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below :
1. Aand C Only
2.Band C Only
3.Cand D Only
4.A and D only

Ans: A

Which of the following statements is logically equivalent to the statement – “No plants are murderers” ?

1. No plants are non-murderers.
2. No murderers are plants.
3. All non-murderers are non-plants.
4. Some non-murderers are not non-plants.

Ans: B

I just cannot believe it! Mr. Suresh cannot be guilty of murder since there is no way Mr. Suresh could kill someone”. Which fallacy is committed in the above argument ?

1. Slippery slope
2. Begging the Question
4. Equivocation

Ans: B

According to classical Indian school of logic, knowledge resulting from prior knowledge of invariable concomitance befween two objects is called ?

1. Arthapatti
2. Anumana
3. Upamana
4. Anuplabdhi

Ans: B

If I were. a heavy smoker, smoking would shorten my life. That’s why I do not smoke. And I expect to live a long and healthy life”. Which fallacy is committed in the above argument?

1. Existential fallacy
2. Undistributed fallacy
3. Affirming the consequent
4. Denying the antecedent

Ans: D

Identify the fallacy committed in the following argument: “My opponent cheated in his taxes. He hired an illegal migrant as a nanny. His views on tax reforms simply cannot be trusted”.

1. Inappropriate authority
3. Appeal to ignorance
4. Begging the question

Ans: B

Which of the following statement is logically equivalent to the statement “All tigers are hunting animals”?

1. Some hunting animals ar tigers.
2. No tigers are non-hunting animals.
3. No hunting animals are tigers.
4. Some hunting animals are not tigers.

Ans: B

Which of the following statements are contradictory to each other?

A. All human beings are mortal.
B. No human beings are mortal.
C. Some human beings are mortal.
D. Some human beings are not mortal.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Aand B only
2.Band Conly
3.CandD only
4.Band D only

Ans: B

According to Classical Indian school of logic knowledge derived from comparison and which roughly corresponds to analogy is:

1. Arthapatti
2. Anumana
3. Upamana
4. Anuplabdhi

Ans: C

Which informal fallacy is committed in the following argument . “The quality of higher education
in our country has been declining for years. Therefore we can conclude beyond doubt that
university teachers are not doing their job these days”?

1. False cause
2. Slippery slope
3. Hasty Generalisation
4. Straw Man

Ans: A

If the proposition-“No mammals are aquatic animals” is given as true, then which of the following
propositions can be directly inferred from it ?

1. Some mammals are not aquatic animals.
2. Some aquatic animals are mammals.
3. Some mammals are non-animals
4. Some non-mammals live in water

Ans: A

Which of the following statements are logically equivelent?

A. some dogs are not aggresive animals.
B. some dogs are aggresive animals.
C. some non-dogs are aggresive animals.
D. some non-aggresive animals are not non-dogs.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.A, B and Conly
2.Aand Conly
3.Aand D only
4.8 and Conly

Ans: C

Which of the following statements are contrary to each other?

A. All objects are perishable.
B. Some objects are perishable.
C. Some objects are not perishable.
D. No objects are perishable

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.Cand D only
2.Aand D only
3.Band D only
4.Aand Conly

Ans: B

When | ask my friend for my way about his residence over the phone, which of the following
instruments of knowledge is used by me to hear and understand what my friend says, as per
classical Indian school of logic(Nyaya)?

1. Perception (Pratyaksa)
2. Inference (Anumama)
3. Postulation (Arthapatti)
4. Verbal testimony (Sabda)

Ans: A

In a certain Coding language:-

‘Ot fao sa ty’ means “Hot food is tasty’
‘ty fao sa digo’ means ‘Tasty food is good”
‘tubo sa digo’ means ‘Mushroom is good’

Which of the following means ‘Hot” and ‘Mushroom’, respectively, in that language?
1. ‘tubo’ & ‘ty’
2.’ra’ & ‘sa’
3. “ot & ‘tubo’
4. ‘fao’ & ‘ty’

Ans: C

Which fallacy is committed in the following argument?
“Grades awarded to a student are not truly reflective of the subtle nuances of the student’s performance. Therefore, students work should not be graded at all.”

1. Equivocation
2. Slippery slope
3. Hasty generalisation
4. Begging the question

Ans: A

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent?

A. No tigers are non-mammals.
B. No mammals are tigers.
C. All non-mammals are non-tigers.
D. All tigers are mammals.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.A, Cand D only
2.Aand Bonly
3.A Band Conly
4.Band Conly

Ans: A

If the statement “All tigers are mammals’, is given as true, which of the following statements could be immediately inferred to be false?

A. Some tigers are not mammals.
B. Some tigers are mammals.
C. No tigers are mammals.
D. Some mammals are tigers.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.Aand D only
2.A Band D only
3.Aand Conly
4.Band D only

Ans: C

Which of the following statements are so related that they both cannot be false, although they may both be true?

A. All animals are birds.
B. Some animals are birds.
C. No animals are birds.
D. Some animals are not birds.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.Aand Conly
2.Aand B only
3.Cand D only
4.Band D only

Ans: D

According to Nyaya (Classical Indian School of logic) which of the following argument involves the fallacy of Viruddha?

1. The hill has smoke because it has fire.
2. Sound is eternal because it is produced.
3. The hill has fire because it is knowable.
4. Sound is eternal because it is audible.

Ans: B

Pointing towards a Picture (P). a man ‘Q’ says that “He is the son of only daughter of my father-in-law”. How is the man ‘Q’ related to the person in the Picture (P) ?

1. Brother-in-law
2. Brother
3.Son
4. Father

Ans: D

If in a certain code language PROFESSOR is written as ‘RTQHGUUQT’, then in that language, how the word SCIENTIST will be written?

1. TDJFOUJTU
2. UEKGOVKUV
3. UEKGPVLUV
4. UEKGPVKUV

Ans: D

Soft drinks sector has shown good growth in profits over past few years thercfore we can conclude that cach individual soft-drinks company is making good profits”. Above argument is an example of which of the following fallacies ?

1. Hasty generalization
2. Slippery slope
3. Begging the question
4. The fallacy of division

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are logically equivalent ?

A. No acroplanes are clectric vehicles.
B. All non-clectric vehicles are non-acroplancs.
C. No electric vehicles are acroplanes.
D. All acroplanes are non-electric vehicles.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1.B, C and D Only
2.A,Cand D Only
3.Aand B Only
4.Band D Only

Ans: B

If the statement No acroplanes are clectric vehicles’is given as true, then which of the following statements can be immediately inferred to be true ?

1. All acroplanes are clectric vehicles.
2. Some acroplanes are clectric vehicles.
3. Some aeroplanes are not electric vehicles.
4. Some acroplanes are not non-polluting vehicles.

Ans: C

Which of the following statements are so related that one is the denial or the negation of the other ?

A. All acroplancs are polluting vehicles.
B. No acroplanes are polluting vehicles.
C. Some acroplanes are polluting vehicles.
D. Some aeroplanes are not polluting vehicles.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below :
1.C and D Only
2.B and D Only
3.Aand D Only
4.Aand B Only

Ans: C

According to Classical Indian School of Logic (Nyaya) which of the following argument involves the fallacy of Sadharana (middle term being too wide) ?

1. The hill has smoke because it has fire.
2. Sound is eternal because it is audible.
3. The hill has fire because it is knowable.
4. All things are non-cternal. because they are knowable.

Ans: C

In a certain coded language;

A) ‘ana ilo gao’ means humans are good’
Q) ‘di ilo da’ means ‘they are bad”

In this coded language which words stands for ‘and’ & ‘they’?
1. ‘ilo’ & ‘di*
2.’ilo” & ‘da’

Ans: D

Mary Com’s coaches say that she has a real gift for boxing. So because her skill is a gift, she doesn’t deserve any credit for it.” Which informal logical fallacy is committed in the above statement?

1. Appeal to authority
2. Red Herring
3. Equivocation
4. Begging the Question

Ans: C

Which of the following propositions are logically equivalent?

A. No women are arrogant human beings.
B. No arrogant human beings are women.
C. All women are non-arrogant human beings.
D. All non-arrogant human beings are non-women

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. Aand D only
2.A, Band Conly
3.A Cand D only
4.8, Cand D only

Ans: B

If the statement ‘some cricketers are not bowlers is given as false, then which of the following
statements can be immediately inferred to be false?

1. Some bowlers are cricketers.
2. Some cricketers are bowlers.
3. Al cricketers are bowlers.
4. No cricketers are bowlers.

Ans: D

Which of the following statements are so related that they cannot both be false, although they may both be true?

C. Some women are not multitaskers.

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.Band Conly
2.Band D only
3.Aand D only
4.Aand Conly

Ans: D

According to classical Indian School of Logc (Nyaya) which of the following steps of inference
involves synthesis of major term (sadhya), middle term (hetu) and the minor term (paksa)?

1. Heraclitus is mortal.
2. Because he is a man.
3. Whoever is a man is a mortal, e.g. Parmanides.
4. Heraclitus is a man who is invariably a mortal.

Ans: D

Which logical fallacy is exemplified in the following statement – “No one can criticize the Freudian psychoanalysis unless the one who criticizes himself has been psychoanalysed”.

2. Appeal to authority
3. Appeal to Ignorance
4. Equivocation

Ans: A

Which of the following propositions is logically equvalent to the proposition – “All frogs are amphibians”?

1. No amphibians are non-frogs.
2. No frogs are non-amphibians.
3. Some amphibians are frogs.
4. Some amphibians are not frogs.

Ans: B

If the proposition ‘some fishes are not amphibians’ is given as false then which of the following propositions can be immediately inferred to be true?

A. No amphibians are fishes.
B. All fishes arc amphibians.
C. No fishes are amphibians.
D. Some fishes are amphibians.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Aand C only
2.C and D only
3.Band D only
4.D only

Ans: C

Which of the following propositions are so related that they cannot both be true, although they may both be false?
A. All frogs are amphibians.
B. Some frogs are amphibians.
C. Some frogs are not amphibians.
D. No frogs are amphibians.

Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Aand C only
2. C and D only
3.Band C only
4.Aand D only

Ans: D

Which of the following arguments is an example of the fallacy of a sadharana (narrow middle term) according to Nyaya (classical Indian school of Logic)?

1. Sound is non-eternal because it is produced.
2. Sound is eternal because it is audible.
3. Sound is eternal because it is produced.
4. Sound is quality because it is visible.

Ans: B

Which letter completes this sequence ABDOPQ?

1. T
2. S
3. Z
4. R

Ans: 4

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: According to Nyaya philosophy. the middle term (hetu or linga) must be found in the minor term (paksa) in a case of inference.
Statement II: According to Nyaya philosophy the middle term should not be found anywhere where Sadhya or major term is not found.

In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct

Ans: 1

My Quintal has argued that logic is not the most important thing in life. Apparently Mr. Quintal advocates irrationality. It has taken two million years for the human race to achieve the position that it has and Mr. Quintal would throw the whole thing into garbage:” ‘Which fallacy is committed in this arguments?

1. Slippery slope
2. Strawman
3. Red herring
4. Hasty generalization

Ans: 2

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: Formal fallacies are those that can be detected only through analysis of the content of the arguments.
Statement II: Formal fallacies pertain to deductive arguments that have identifiable forms.

In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement IT is correct

Ans: 4

The collection of all the objects to which a term may correctly be applied is called?

A. The intension of that term
B. Connotation of that term
C. The extension of that term
D. Denotation of that term

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1. Aand B only
2. Aand D only
3.Band C only
4.C and D only

Ans: 4

A farmer sees the water level of river rising rapidly from that he concludes that it must have rained heavily upon the hills. Which of the instruments of knowledge is used in this example?

1. Perception (Pratyaksa)
2. Inference (Anuména)
3. Comparison (Upamana)
4. Extra-ordinary perception (aulaukika Pratyaksa)

Ans: 2

If ‘MALE’is coded as 31 and FEMALE’ is coded as 42. then how will ‘”ADULT’ be coded in the same scheme?

1. 35
2. 53
3. 58
4. 62

Ans: 3

Arrange the following group of terms in order of decreasing extension.

A Mammal
B. Wildeat
C. Feline
D. Animal
E. Vertebrate

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
1.C,B,E,A,D
2.B,C.A.E.D
3.D.A.E.B.C
4.D.E.A.C.B

Ans: A

Which fallacy is exemplified in the following statement. “There is no such things as knowledge which cannot be carried into practice . for such knowledge is really no knowledge at all”?

1. Begging the question
2. Hasty Generalisation
3. Red Herring
4. Slippery slope

Ans: 1

Which formal fallacy is committed in the following argument: “if your pet is a cat, then it as a tail. Your pet is not a cat. therefore your pel does not have a tail”?

1. Existential fallacy
2. Denying the antecedent
3. Exclusive Premises
4. Affirming the Consequent

Ans: 2

Given below are two statements:

Statement I: In deductive arguments, the claim is made that conclusions follow with certainly from their premises.
Statement II: Any inductive argument, if is is good. brings to light in its conclusion what was already burried in its premiscs
.
In the light of the above statements. choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below.
1. Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
2. Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
3. Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
4. Statement I is incorrect but Statement IT is correct

Ans: 3

What is the name of the computing term deseribed below?
Software that gives the user the chance to try it out free of charge before actually buying it. The software is subject to the usual copyright laws. As a rule. not all the features found in the full version are available at this stage.

1. Freeware
2. Shareware
3. Firmware
4. Malware

Ans: 3