Allah عزوجل says in Qur’an:
“& remember when we liberated you from Fir’oun & his followers as they would give you very much pain, they would slaughter your sons & keep your daughters alive & there was great blessing of your Lord in it”
[Al Qur’an 2:48]
Fir’oun was the king of Misar (Egypt). In the times of Musa علیه سلام, the name of Fir’oun was Waleed Bin Wasa’b Bin Rayaz. He lived for more than 400 years.
Fir’oun had imposed very hard & painful work on Bani Israel. There necks & backs would get wounded by cutting of cliffs & taking them from one place to another.
He had imposed several high taxes on the poor. If one who would fail to pay tax, his hands were binded with his neck & was kept in that condition for one month & other fierce punishments were also in practice.(Hazin)
Firoun dreamt that a fire broke out from Beit-ul-Muqaddas that had trapped the whole of Misar & burnt the whole tribes, but did not harm Bani Israel. Firoun got frightened.
Fortune tellers predicted that a boy will be born in Bani Israel that will kill him & disintegrate his Sultanate. On hearing this Fir’oun ordered that who so ever boy is born in Bani Israel should be killed. As a consequence 70,000 children were killed & 90,000 were killed in their pre-birth stage. Moreover, as the will of Allah عزوجل, the old people also began to die at a high rate.
The people of Qabat Tribe got frightened & pleaded to Fir’oun that in Bani Isra’el, the deaths are occuring at high rate & in addition, the children are also being killed. Then from where, they will bring the slaves.
At this, Fir’oun ordered that the children of one year should be killed & that of the succceeding year should be spared.
The year in which children were to killed, Musa علیه سلام was born & in which children were to be spared, Harun علیه سلام was born.
Musa علیه سلام on the order of Allah عزوجل departed from Misar with Bani Isra’el. Fir’oun too, alongwith his followers chased Bani Israel so as to catch & kill them. On seeing the army of Fir’oun, Musa علیه سلام pleaded to Allah عزوجل. & on His order, Musa علیه سلام hit his club (عصا) with which, there emerged 12 dry ways & water stood up like walls. These walls made up of water became ventilators. Each & every class of Bani Isra’el crossed the river by talking to each other.
On seeing the ways in the river, Fir’oun said to his followers that “See, I am the God & river has made way in itself for us”. Thus the army of Fir’oun alongwith him came into the river. When whole of his army came inside, the water of river came on its original shape & Fir’oun & whole of his followers immersed in the river & died.
It was 10th of Moharram on that day. Musa علیه سلام fasted to thank to Allah عزوجل.
After the end of Fir’oun & his companions, when Hazrat Musa علیه سلام came back to Misar alongwith the Bani Isra’el, he ( Hazrat Musa علیه سلام) requested Allah عزوجل to alight Torah (توریت). On his request, Allah عزوجل promised Torah. Torah was to be alighted in a period of 40 days (full month of Zil Qada & 10 days of Zil Hajja).
Hazrat Musa علیه سلام nominated his brother Haroon علیه سلام as the Caliph of Misar & led to Koh-e-Tuur for Torah. He stayed there for 40 nights. In that period, he didn’t talk to anybody. & ultimately, Torah was alighted.
While Hazrat Musa علیه سلام was in Koh-e-Tuur, in Bani Isra’el, Samiri deluded Bani Isra’el to worship the calf. Except Haroon علیه سلام & his 12,000 companions, all others worshipped the calf. (Hazin).
Forgiveness was possible if those who did not worship the calf should slaughter those who did.
“& when Musa علیه سلام said to his subjects, Oh my people! You did wrong with your lives by worshipping the calf, so consult your Lord & kill one another, it is better for you near your Creator, hence He undertook your repetence, verily He is the one to undertake the repetence ¤” [Al Qur’an 2:53]
As a result, 70,000 slaughterings were performed. After that, Hazrat Musa علیه سلام prayed to Lord. Divine revelation (وحی) came that those being slaughtered are martyr. Both the killers & being killed are Heavenly.
Hence, Polytheism makes one apostate & punishment for polytheism is death.
There were several crimes committed by Bani Isra’el.
* They worshipped the picture or image.
* They insubordinated Haroon علیه سلام.
* They worshipped calf that was polytheism.
But as they repeted, they didn’t go to hell like Fir’oun & his followers.
Their slaughter was atonement for them.
After that Allah عزوجل said to Musa علیه سلام to present them before Allah عزوجل for their apology.
Hazrat Musa علیه سلام chose 70 men of them & took them to Koh-e-Tuur. On reaching there, they said that, “O Musa علیه سلام, we won’t believe you until we ourselves see Allah عزوجل.”
On this, a frightening voice came from sky which killed them. Hazrat Musa علیه سلام pleaded to Allah عزوجل to bring them back to life & Allah عزوجل did so.
After comleting the task, they came back. Hazrat Musa علیه سلام announced the order of Allah عزوجل that they should migrate to Sham, free it from Amalqa & settle there. On the way Allah عزوجل provided them all the facilities.
They were asked to eat the food but never keep it. But they disobeyed the order. As a result, the food was rotten.
They were ordered to enter the Bait-ul-Muqaddas by prostrating & asking forgiveness. But they did everything in contrast to it. Hence became the victim of divine punishment.